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Ogunjobi A.A.,University of Ibadan | Elizabeth O.T.,Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria CRIN
African Journal of Biomedical Research | Year: 2011

A comparative study of the antimicrobial activities of the bark and seed extracts of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya were tested using the Agar well diffusion method on eight bacterial strains - Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typhi B; Shigelladysenteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Serratiamarcescens; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Proteus vulgaris; and Bacillus subtillis. Phytochemical screening shows that both bark and seed of the two plants contain reducing sugars, phenols and alkaloids whereas the pawpaw extracts contained tannins which were absent in the bitter kola plant part. Garcinakola on the other hand has saponin that was not present in Caricapapaya. The Garcinia seed ethanol extract manifested the best inhibitory activities against the test bacteria, producing inhibition zones ranging from 12-23mm. There was no resistance from any of the test bacteria. The pawpaw seed extract was also effective against the test bacteria. The inhibition zone observed ranged from 11-16mm. The ethanol extract of both plants were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigelladysenteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens; and Salmonella typhi B. Pawpaw leaf ethanolic extract significantly inhibited Pseudomiasaeruginosa, while Garcinia seeds ethanolic extract also inhibited Bacillus substilis. The activity index of ethanol extract of Garcinia kola seed was higher than that of pawpaw seed when both gentamicin and tetracycline were used as a standard antibiotics. The aqueous extract of both plant parts were not as effective as the ethanol extract. The activities of these medicinal plants against the tested bacterial species in this study justified their common use in African traditional medicine in the treatment of various ailments.

Hammed L.A.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Aliyu O.M.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Dada K.E.,Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria CRIN | Egbewale S.O.,Olabisi Onabanjo University
International Journal of Fruit Science | Year: 2014

The germination of cashew nuts and the quantitative plant vigor of the seedlings as influenced by small, medium, and large Indian and Brazilian cashew cultivars and five nut-sowing orientations (nut-side/side-positioning, stalk-end facing up, stalk-end facing down, scar-end facing up, and scar-end facing down) were investigated. The results of data collected on percentage germination, stem girth (cm), plant height (cm), number of leaves, leaf area (cm2), and dry matter yield showed that genotype and nut-sowing orientations significantly influence percentage germination (P < 0.05). Brazilian cultivars with medium nuts, irrespective of sowing orientations, had better germination than other genotypes. Brazilian cultivars with large nuts sown on nut-side and Indian cultivars with medium nuts sown on nut-side and with stalk-end up had germination percentage ranging between 86.7% and 100% at 4 weeks after sowing (WAS), while Brazilian cultivars with large nuts, Indian cultivars with medium and small nuts sown with scar-end down, and Indian small with stalk-end down had the lowest germination percentage of between 26.7% and 46.7%. The Brazilian cultivars with large and medium nuts both sown on the nut-side and stalk-end up produced higher dry matter yield of between 6.9 and 7.4 g/plant, while Indian cultivars with small nuts, in all sowing orientations, produced the least dry matter yield of between 0.73 and 2.5 g/plant. This empirical information will guide the farmers in the selection of planting materials and seed propagation for the successful establishment of cashew plantations with healthy and vigorous seedlings. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Agbongiarhuoyi A.E.,Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria CRIN | Aigbekaen E.O.,Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria CRIN | Adeogun S.O.,Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria CRIN | Uwagboe E.O.,Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria CRIN | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Information | Year: 2012

Appropriate planting patterns ensure sustained soil fertility and higher productivity for farmers. This study assessed the intercropping crop combinations and information sources of kola farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Sixty respondents were selected using multistage and purposive random sampling techniques. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire. The arable crops commonly intercropped with kola were plantain/banana, yam, cassava, and maize. Tree crops combined with kola included cocoa, citrus, and oil palm. Co-farmers/friends and radio served as popular sources of information for farmers. Farm size was significantly related to respondents' information sources on kola intercropping. The authors recommend that the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria's extension personnel make greater use of information sources most frequently used by respondents in order to ensure adequate cropping systems. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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