Gyedu-Akoto E.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2011
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how to develop useful products from cashew by-products, to help expand the income base of cashew farmers in the Savanna area. Design/methodology/approach: Investigations into the utilization of some by-products from cashew were carried out using the apples and gum from the cashew tree. The apples were processed into clarified and non-clarified juices and jam. Cashew gum, a by-product of the cashew tree, was used in the development of baked doughnuts as a fat replacer. The gum was used at five different levels in the preparation of the products - 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent of fat used. Findings: The average yield of cashew juice after extraction with a screw press ranged from 53.0 to 54.6 per cent. Results on chemical and sensory analyses of the two juices showed that clarification with Polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced both the chemical and sensory quality of the juices. Protein content, total sugar concentration and K content reduced from 0.548, 58.23 and 4.23 per cent to 0.443, 18.50 and 3.32 per cent, respectively. Fat contents of the baked doughnuts were 16.72, 14.68, 8.10, 8.24 and 5.82 per cent for products with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent cashew gum, respectively. Results of sensory analysis showed that decreasing the fat content reduced the flavour, moistness and consumer acceptance of the products. However, there was no significant difference between the products. Therefore, it is suggested that cashew gum can replace fat in baked dough nuts up to 20 per cent. Originality/value: These findings are important to cashew farmers, processors, nutritionists and consumers as a whole. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Padi F.K.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Ofori A.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2016
One of the reasons for the low yields of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in West Africa is the poor adaptation of varieties to a rapidly changing climate reflected in poor seedling survival and reduced precocity. To show the impact of cacao seed purity and genotype on seedling survival and precocity, recommended varieties being supplied to farmers were sampled from four seed gardens and compared with breeders’ varieties in one on-station and five on-farm trials in Ghana. Varieties were assessed for plant survival, stem diameter increment and pod production by 27 months after transplanting. Parentage analyses at 75 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci revealed the presence of illegitimate progeny (seedlings of unapproved parents) among the recommended varieties, with selfed progeny comprising up to 50% of seedlings from one seed garden. The selfed progeny possessed the least vigor, and had not initiated pod production by 27 months after transplanting. In general, the seed garden varieties performed poorly compared with the breeders’ varieties for all three traits. On the strength of the results of the present study, two key actions are needed to increase cacao adaptation and yields at the farm level. First, a DNA marker-auditing system of the progenies issued from the seed gardens should be operationalized as a quality-control mechanism. Second, new male parents that produce seedlings of improved vigor need to be introduced into the seed gardens to improve cacao plant survival and yield. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
Asase A.,University of Ghana |
Asiatokor B.K.,University of Ghana |
Ofori-Frimpong K.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014
We investigated the effects of selective logging disturbances on tree diversity and soil characteristics in the Bia Conservation Area in southwest Ghana. The study was conducted in unlogged, 29-35 years post-logged and swamp forests using ten 25 m × 25 m plots. In total, we identified 310 individual trees belonging to 87 species. Mean Shannon-Weiner index was highest in the post-logged forest but there were no significant differences in tree density, dominance, or DBH size class distributions between these forests. Soil physical properties such as pH and bulk density up to 30 cm depth were similar in the two of forests In terms of soil nutrient status, available P, exchangeable K and total N contents were all similar in the unlogged and post-logged forests. Our findings suggest that the effects of logging on tree diversity are comparatively long-term, in contrast to its short-term effects on some top soil physical and chemical characteristics. © 2014 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Dzahini-Obiatey H.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Domfeh O.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Amoah F.M.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010
Virus diseases have plagued cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production in West Africa for over seven decades. Principal among them is that caused by the cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV), which is endemic in Togo, Ghana and Nigeria, and more recently Cote d'Ivoire. The incidence of the disease in Ghana has led to the launch of the costliest and an over ambitious eradication control programme in the world. This review highlights the various research activities conducted mainly in Ghana that influenced the various control strategies as well as those that have the potential to influence future ones. Isolation of newly planted cocoa has been identified as an efficient method of reducing CSSV prevalence and spread in the field. Identification of mealybugs as vectors, the role of alternative host in the spread of the disease, the need for an urgent review of the eradication procedures, breeding specifically for resistance to CSSV as well as some biochemical and molecular biology studies are some of the points highlighted in this paper. The achievements and limitations made in these fields are duly emphasized. The way forward, however, will be to combine most of these strategies into a single or two integrated approaches to control cocoa swollen shoot virus disease (CSSVD). This will then be in tune with the suggestion that no single measure is adequate to solve the swollen shoot disease problem in Ghana, and the rest of West Africa. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Nyadanu D.,College of Agriculture Science and Education |
Lowor S.T.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014
Ghana is endowed with a lot of indigenous leaf and fruit vegetables which are nutritious and are used in the treatment of many ailments. However, current changes in food habits in both rural and urban households have led to overdependence on energy-rich but nutrient poor staple crops. Most of these non-indigenous staple crops are not adapted to local conditions in Ghana as compared to indigenous vegetables making their production and consumption expensive and therefore worsening malnutrition and food insecurity issues. To promote consumption of indigenous vegetables and conservation of their genetic resources in Ghana, proximate, mineral and vitamins composition and medicinal properties of five indigenous leaf (Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius, Solanum macrocarpon, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Adasonia digitata) and three fruit vegetables (Solanum torvum, Solanum aethiopicum, Solanum macrocarpon) vegetables were evaluated using recommended methodologies. Proximate, mineral and vitamins composition varied significantly among the species analyzed. Nutritional composition of indigenous leaf and fruit vegetables were compared with that of exotic vegetables and significant differences were noted. In general, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibers, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin E were significantly higher in indigenous vegetables than their exotic counterparts. The results highlight nutritional importance of indigenous vegetables and the need to promote their consumption and safeguard their genetic resources. For further promotion, some urgent research directions are suggested. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Wade A.S.I.,University of Reading |
Asase A.,University of Ghana |
Hadley P.,University of Reading |
Mason J.,Nature Conservation Research Center |
And 4 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010
How do we manage the trade-offs between agricultural yields, biodiversity and ecosystem services? One option is to adopt high yield, intensive farming that allows land to be spared elsewhere for conservation (land sparing); another is to adopt low yield, extensive farming over a greater area that retains more biodiversity and protects ecosystem services (wildlife-friendly farming). We examine which is likely to be the best option to achieve high carbon storage and tree species richness in tropical cocoa-growing landscapes. Increased management intensity explained higher yield and in turn this explained a reduction in carbon storage and species richness. Substantial differences in species richness between forest and cocoa farms suggested that land sparing would conserve more tree species than wildlife-friendly farming. The optimal strategy for carbon storage depends on the cocoa yield in the wildlife-friendly farming system. At low cocoa yields, wildlife-friendly farming is the best option; whereas at higher yields land sparing is best. Our results suggest that the best land management strategy for biodiversity and ecosystem services might differ depending on details of the farming systems involved. Management of the trade-offs between agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystem services in tropical forest landscapes needs to consider current and expected future yields. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Afoakwa E.O.,University of Ghana |
Quao J.,University of Ghana |
Takrama J.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Budu A.S.,University of Ghana |
Saalia F.K.,University of Ghana
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013
Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decreases in ash (3.48-2.92%), protein (21.63-17.62%) and fat (55.21-50.40%) content of the beans while carbohydrate content increased from 15.47% to 24.93% with both treatments. As well, increasing pod storage and fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the copper content of the beans from while reductions in Mg and K occurred. Amongst the minerals studied, potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by magnesium, phosphorus and calcium in the fermented cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).
Padi F.K.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Opoku S.Y.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Adomako B.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Adu-Ampomah Y.,Ghana Cocoa Board
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012
Understanding the relationship between vegetative vigor and productivity in cocoa is critical to maximizing yield per unit area in cocoa plantations. Three trials established from either progenies of self mating of 24 clones of Upper Amazon origin, or from progenies of mating among clones recommended as parents for production (Seed Garden clones) or from progenies of inter- and intra-group mating of selected clones were analyzed for their vigor and yield relationships over a period of 10 years. The rate of increase in tree trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) prior to bearing was an effective parameter in identifying families with large cumulative yields over the first five or six production years. Families with slow increase in juvenile TCSA were particularly of low bean yields. Though girth of adult trees was generally correlated with cumulative yields, a consistent relationship between tree girth at the end of the 10th year and yield efficiency was not observed. Yield efficiency was significantly correlated with cumulative yield, and showed predominantly additive gene action. The combined selection for rapid increase in juvenile tree TCSA and precocity have the potential of identifying high yielding families early in a cocoa breeding program. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Asase A.,University of Ghana |
Ofori-Frimpong K.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Ekpe P.K.,University of Ghana
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010
Cocoa production occurs almost wholly within areas identified as biodiversity hotspots in West Africa and it has been noted as a major contributor to deforestation at the forest-agriculture interface. This study investigated the impact of cocoa farming on vegetation in relation to three land-use types of increasing cocoa production intensity from remnant native forest through shaded to unshaded cocoa farmlands in Ghana. The study used transects and forty-two 25 m × 25 m vegetation plots. The overall noncocoa plant species richness decreased significantly (95% CI) from the remnant native forest through shaded to the unshaded cocoa farmlands. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were also found in the mean density and basal area of noncocoa plants per hectare with the remnant native forest recording the highest values and the unshaded cocoa farmlands the lowest. The relative density of about 44.7% out of the 41 most abundant plant species declined in cocoa farmlands. The results of this study showed that cocoa farming could result in a drastic forest plant species loss with subsequent recruitment of nonforest species, forest plant species population decline as well as changes in the structural characteristics of the vegetation. This impact increases with increasing cocoa production intensity. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Acheampong K.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana |
Hadley P.,University of Reading |
Daymond A.J.,University of Reading
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2013
The physiological performance of four cacao clones was examined under three artificial shade regimes over the course of a year in Ghana. Plants under light shade had significantly higher photosynthetic rates in the rainy seasons whereas in the dry season there was a trend of higher photosynthetic rates under heavy shade. The results imply that during the wet seasons light was the main limiting factor to photosynthesis whereas in the dry season vapour pressure deficit was the major factor limiting photosynthesis through stomatal regulation. Leaf area was generally lower under heavier shade but the difference between shade treatments varied between clones. Such differences in leaf area allocation appeared to underlie genotypic differences in final biomass production in response to shade. The results suggest that shade for young cacao should be provided based on the current ambient environment and genotype. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.