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Kampung Baharu Nilai, Malaysia

Abhay S.M.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Hii C.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Law C.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Suzannah S.,Cocoa Innovative and Technology Center | Djaeni M.,Diponegoro University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2016

Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, heat treatment on cocoa beans during drying has an inhibitory effect on the retention of its polyphenols. The polyphenol degradation mechanism due to heating is scarcely reported in literatures for cocoa beans. This paper aims to provide substantial evidence to prove that temperature and heating time has a negative effect on cocoa polyphenols. The study measured total polyphenols content of cocoa beans dried at 60°C, 70°C and 80°C respectively, at relative humidity (RH) level of 50% for heating time ranging from 0 to 40 h. Results showed that the total polyphenols content was found to be a maximum at 70°C drying temperature and reduced as the heating time for drying increased. This experiment confirmed the thermal degradation of polyphenols due to high temperature and exposure time with little effect from enzymatic activity especially at very low moisture content level. Sensory evaluation showed that astringency taste was rated higher for sample dried at 70°C. Source


Menon A.S.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Hii C.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Law C.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Suzannah S.,Cocoa Innovative and Technology Center | Djaeni M.,Diponegoro University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5?min, 10?min and 15?min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118?mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source


Hii C.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Law C.L.,University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus | Suzannah S.,Cocoa Innovative and Technology Center
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2012

Investigation was carried out to study the drying kinetics of the individual layer of cocoa beans, namely the testa and cotyledon, during heat pump drying. The cocoa beans were dried in thin layer using dehumidified air at 28.2 °C, 40.4 °C and 56 °C. Moisture contents of the bean, testa and cotyledon were recorded during drying. Reduction in moisture content was relatively fast at the testa as compared to the cotyledon in the initial two hours of drying. Subsequent drying showed a crossover region where the moisture content of the testa was higher than the cotyledon. The final moisture content of the testa was found to be higher than the inner cotyledon at the end of drying. This showed that moisture migrated from the cotyledon (lower moisture content) to the testa (higher moisture content) during drying. Although such transfer mechanism seems contradict but this can be further explained by the mass transfer potential concept as postulated by Luikov where the transfer of moisture is due to moisture potential difference instead of moisture content difference. Product quality analyses showed percent retention of cocoa polyphenols ranged from 44% to 73% as compared to freeze dried sample. Bean hardness was found reasonably comparable to the commercial sample and increased with decreasing moisture content. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zulhilmi Z.A.M.,University of Malaya | Nor K.A.B.,University of Malaya | Muhamad H.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Zainudin B.H.,Cocoa Innovative and Technology Center
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2015

An effective, simple, and cost effective ultrasonic solvent extraction procedure was developed for the determination of λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin residues in soil by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Several extraction parameters were optimised with regard to the solvent type, solvent volume and duration of sonication. Under the optimum conditions, recovery studies were performed at five fortification levels (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1 μg g-1). The recovery level ranged from 93.99% to 101.49% and 90.59% to 99.50% for λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin respectively. The relative standard deviation values were less than 4% in all cases. The sensitivitiy of the method was acceptable with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.0025 μg g-1 and 0.01 μg g-1 for λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied successfully for residue determination of both λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in soil samples from an oil palm plantation in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Source


Muhamad H.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board | Zainudin B.H.,Cocoa Innovative and Technology Center | Abu Bakar N.K.,University of Malaya
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Solid phase extraction (SPE) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) were compared and evaluated for the determination of λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in palm oil matrices by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Several SPE sorbents such as graphitised carbon black (GCB), primary secondary amine (PSA), C18, silica, and florisil were tested in order to minimise fat residues. The results show that mixed sorbents using GCB and PSA obtained cleaner extracts than a single GCB and PSA sorbents. The average recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged between 81% and 114% at five fortification levels with the relative standard deviation of less than 7% in all cases. The limits of detection for these pesticides were ranged between 0.025 and 0.05 μg/g. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of both λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in crude palm oil samples obtained from local mills throughout Malaysia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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