Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center

Kampung Baharu Nilai, Malaysia

Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center

Kampung Baharu Nilai, Malaysia
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Zainudin B.H.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center | Salleh S.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2017

Modified QuEChERS method combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to determine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans. Extraction efficiency of matrix hydration effect on 19 pesticide residues was studied and optimized using 23 full factorial design with percentage recoveries as the response variable. The optimized hydration method was validated for 24 pesticides, and recoveries obtained were in the range of 70–120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20% for most pesticides. Limit of quantification was obtained at 10 μg/kg for all pesticides, and this value was lower than national maximum residue levels (MRLs). Finally, the developed and optimized method was applied to real cocoa bean samples and the results from incurred residues were compared between method with and without matrix hydration. These results suggest that the addition of water to the dry and high-fat cocoa bean samples is crucial in pesticide residue analysis. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Abdul Karim A.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center | Azlan A.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hashim P.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology | Year: 2016

Objective: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles. Methods: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition. Results: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application. Conclusion: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Abdul Karim A.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center | Azlan A.,University Putra Malaysia | Ismail A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hashim P.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient.Methods: Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength).Results: LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent.Conclusions: Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects. © 2014 Abdul Karim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Baharum Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Baharum Z.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center | Md Akim A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hin T.Y.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Life Sciences Research | Year: 2016

Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2016.


Karim A.A.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center | Azlan A.,University Putra Malaysia
Molecules | Year: 2012

Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno-botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | University Putra Malaysia and Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cosmetic dermatology | Year: 2016

Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles.The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.

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