Cockcroft Institute

Warrington, United Kingdom

Cockcroft Institute

Warrington, United Kingdom

The Cockcroft Institute is an international centre for Accelerator Science and Technology in the UK. It was proposed in September 2003 and officially opened in September 2006. It is a joint venture of Lancaster University, the University of Liverpool, the University of Manchester, the Science and Technology Facilities Council, and the Northwest Regional Development Agency. The Institute is located in a purpose-built building on the Daresbury Laboratory campus, and in centres in each of the participating universities.The Institute's aim is to provide the intellectual focus, educational infrastructure, and the essential scientific and technological facilities for Accelerator Science and Technology research and development, which will enable UK scientists and engineers to take a major role in accelerator design, construction, and operation for the foreseeable future. The Institute is named after the Nobel prizewinner Sir John Cockcroft FRS.The present director of the Cockcroft Institute is Swapan Chattopadhyay. Wikipedia.


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Welsch C.P.,Cockcroft Institute
IPAC 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2016

The LA3NET consortium has developed advanced laser applications for particle accelerators within an international research and training network. It brought together research centers, universities, and industry partners to carry out collaborative research into all the above areas and jointly train the next generation of researchers. This paper presents selected research highlights from the LA3NET network. It shows how enhanced ionization schemes can provide better ion beams for radioactive beam facilities, results from studies into ultra-compact, fiber optics-based electron accelerators and new radiation sources based on laseraccelerated beams. The paper also provides a brief overview of past and future training events organized by the consortium. Copyright © 2016 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors.


Welsch C.P.,Cockcroft Institute
IPAC 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2016

The optimization of the performance of any particle accelerator critically depends on an in-depth understanding of the beam dynamics, powerful simulation tools and beam diagnostics, as well as a control and data acquisition system that links all the above. The oPAC consortium has carried out collaborative research into these areas, with the aim to optimize the performance of present and future accelerators that lie at the heart of many research infrastructures. The network brought together research centers, universities, and industry partners to jointly train 23 researchers. This paper presents selected research outcomes from the network's scientific work packages, including results from beam dynamics simulations into upgrade scenarios for the LHC and 3rd generation light source ALBA, as well as initial results from a cryogenic current comparator for low intensity ion beams. Finally, it is shown how an open source control system based on a relational database using a dynamic library loader can help enhance overall facility performance. Copyright © 2016 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors.


Welsch C.P.,Cockcroft Institute
IPAC 2016 - Proceedings of the 7th International Particle Accelerator Conference | Year: 2016

The Optimization of Medical Accelerators (OMA) is the aim of a new European training network. OMA joins universities, research centers and clinical facilities with industry partners to address the challenges in treatment facility design and optimization, numerical simulations for advanced treatment schemes, and beam imaging and treatment monitoring. Projects include: compact accelerators for proton beam energy boosting and gantry design; strategies for improving Monte Carlo codes for medical applications and treatment planning; and advanced diagnostics for online beam monitoring. The latter involves RF-based measurements of ultra-low charges and new encoding methodologies for ultra-fast 3D surface scanning. This paper presents an overview of the network's research program and highlights the various challenges across the 3 scientific work packages. It also summarizes the network-wide training program consisting of schools, topical workshops and conferences that will be open to the wider medical and accelerator communities. Copyright © 2016 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors.


Flash Physics is our daily pick of the latest need-to-know developments from the global physics community selected by Physics World's team of editors and reporters Liquid droplets sprayed onto a stretched film reveal asymmetries in the tension within the film – according to physicists in Canada and France. Rafael Schulman, Kari Dalnoki-Veress and colleagues at McMaster University and ESPCI Paris found that glycerol on an elastic polymer film formed circular droplets when the film is stretched with a tension that is uniform in all directions. However, when the tension is greater in one direction, the droplets form with elliptical shapes. What is more, the long axes of the elliptical droplets point along the direction of highest tension. By measuring the 3D shape of a droplet, the team was also able calculate the local tension of the film. By studying droplets distributed across a film, the researchers were able to measure the stress vector at different points in the material – mapping how shear and boundaries affect stress, for example. The technique is described in Physical Review Letters and could lead to a new non-destructive way of measuring stress. A 3D-printed electronic fabric could allow robots to feel. The "bionic skin" has been developed by Michael McAlpine of the University of Minnesota in the US and colleagues, and is a step towards wearable electronics for human skin. To create the sensing fabric, the team built a customized 3D printer and used specialized "inks" to build the layers of the skin. The resulting structure has a base layer of silicone topped with electrodes and a coil-shaped pressure sensor, all made of conductive silver-silicone ink. A sacrificial layer holds the layers in place while the ink sets and is then washed away in the final manufacturing stage. Unlike conventional 3D-printing materials, the inks used set at room temperature and stretch up to three times their original size. "This is a completely new way to approach 3D printing of electronics," says McAlpine, "We have a multifunctional printer that can print several layers to make these flexible sensory devices. This could take us into so many directions from health monitoring to energy harvesting to chemical sensing." The bionic skin, presented in Advanced Materials, could also be applied to surgical robots, giving surgeons a sense of touch while working remotely. The discovery could even lead to printing electronics onto human skin. "While we haven't printed on human skin yet, we were able to print on the curved surface of a model hand using our technique," McAlpine says: "We also interfaced a printed device with the skin and were surprised that the device was so sensitive that it could detect your pulse in real time." The next step for the research is to develop semiconductor inks and print on a human body. A new commercial device for monitoring beam loss in accelerators has been developed by D-Beam, which is a spin-out company from the Cockcroft Institute accelerator centre at the Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. The company was co-founded by Carsten Welsch and Alexandra Alexandrova who are both at the University of Liverpool, which is one of five partners that operate the Cockcroft Institute. The company's first product is new type of sensor that can monitor the "halo" of particles lost by a beam of particles as it moves through an accelerator. In some cases this loss introduces unwanted noise into experiments, and in some extreme situations beam loss can damage accelerators. The system uses optical fibres fitted with advanced light detectors. Whenever a stray particle crosses a fibre, it creates a light pulse that is recorded with extreme precision – revealing both the time and place in the accelerator where the particle was detected. "Another product we are considering for commercialization is a gas-jet-based monitor that can characterize the profile of the beam, another key feature that needs constant surveillance," says Welsch. The monitor – which will be deployed in the next upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN – fires a cold supersonic gas jet shaped across the path of the beam. When the beam particles hit the atoms of the gas, light is generated, which creates a "photograph" of the beam's profile.


Barlow R.J.,University of Huddersfield | Barlow R.J.,Cockcroft Institute
Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements | Year: 2011

Lepton Flavour violation is predicted by many theories beyond the standard model. In the muon sector such a violation entails not only direct μ→eγ decay but also the conversion process μ→e. To measure this to high precision requires a large number of muons of very similar energy, and this is difficult to achieve from a muon target with conventional beam optics. PRISM is an FFAG system designed to accept large numbers of muons (1012/sec) with a wide range of energies, and render them monochromatic by accelerating the less energetic muons and decelerating the more energetic ones. To preserve Liouville's theorem, this is accompanied by a broadening in the timing of the muons, hence the name 'Phase Rotated Intense Slow Muon source.' The principles of this device have been demonstrated and components prototyped. PRIME is a detector (PRISM Muon Electron Conversion) which has been designed to stop 20 MeV bunches of muons in a thin foil, giving a very clean signal and reaching a background sensitivity of 10-18, four orders of magnitude better than today's limits and probing the interesting region for BSM theories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Carter R.G.,Cockcroft Institute
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2010

A simple method for modeling the performance of an inductive output tube (IOT) is described. The model reproduces the characteristics of an IOT with good accuracy over the full dynamic range of the tube. © 2006 IEEE.


Perlick V.,Cockcroft Institute
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

Maxwell's equations are considered in metric-free form, with a local but otherwise arbitrary constitutive law. After splitting Maxwell's equations into evolution equations and constraints, we derive the characteristic equation and we discuss its properties in detail. We present several results that are relevant for the question of whether the evolution equations are hyperbolic, strongly hyperbolic, or symmetric hyperbolic. In particular, we give a convenient characterization of all constitutive laws for which the evolution equations are symmetric hyperbolic. The latter property is sufficient, but not necessary, for well-posedness of the initial-value problem. By way of example, we illustrate our results with the constitutive laws of biisotropic media and of Born-Infeld theory. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Carter R.G.,Lancaster University | Carter R.G.,Cockcroft Institute
Contemporary Physics | Year: 2011

Particle accelerators have many important uses in scientific experiments, in industry and in medicine. This paper reviews the variety of technologies which are used to accelerate charged particles to high energies. It aims to show how the capabilities and limitations of these technologies are related to underlying physical principles. The paper emphasises the way in which different technologies are used together to convey energy from the electrical supply to the accelerated particles. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


News Article | February 4, 2016
Site: phys.org

Laser self-mixing is a technique usually used for the measurement of low velocities and vibrations. In a paper that has just been published in the journal Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, researchers from the Cockcroft Institute/University of Liverpool present how these measurements can be extended to velocities of fluids using additional seeding particles. Parameters of fluids such as velocity and the concentration of seeding particles were under study to understand the effect on the performance of the sensor for possible future use on gas jets.


News Article | November 5, 2015
Site: phys.org

In a paper that has just been published researchers from CERN, the Cockcroft Institute and the University of Liverpool present how to optimize the design of this important monitor on the example of monitor that was successfully developed for an exotic ion beam project at CERN.

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