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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Boeckxstaens G.E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Annese V.,Ospedale Casa Sollievo Della Sofferenza | Des Varannes S.B.,University of Nantes | Chaussade S.,Cochin University Hospital | And 8 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Many experts consider laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) to be superior to pneumatic dilation for the treatment of achalasia, and LHM is increasingly considered to be the treatment of choice for this disorder. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed achalasia to pneumatic dilation or LHM with Dor's fundoplication. Symptoms, including weight loss, dysphagia, retrosternal pain, and regurgitation, were assessed with the use of the Eckardt score (which ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more pronounced symptoms). The primary outcome was therapeutic success (a drop in the Eckardt score to ≤3) at the yearly follow-up assessment. The secondary outcomes included the need for retreatment, pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal emptying on a timed barium esophagogram, quality of life, and the rate of complications. RESULTS: A total of 201 patients were randomly assigned to pneumatic dilation (95 patients) or LHM (106). The mean follow-up time was 43 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 40 to 47). In an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the primary outcome; the rate of therapeutic success with pneumatic dilation was 90% after 1 year of follow-up and 86% after 2 years, as compared with a rate with LHM of 93% after 1 year and 90% after 2 years (P = 0.46). After 2 years of follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in the pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter (LHM, 10 mm Hg [95% CI, 8.7 to 12]; pneumatic dilation, 12 mm Hg [95% CI, 9.7 to 14]; P = 0.27); esophageal emptying, as assessed by the height of barium-contrast column (LHM, 1.9 cm [95% CI, 0 to 6.8]; pneumatic dilation, 3.7 cm [95% CI, 0 to 8.8]; P = 0.21); or quality of life. Similar results were obtained in the per-protocol analysis. Perforation of the esophagus occurred in 4% of the patients during pneumatic dilation, whereas mucosal tears occurred in 12% during LHM. Abnormal exposure to esophageal acid was observed in 15% and 23% of the patients in the pneumatic-dilation and LHM groups, respectively (P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: After 2 years of follow-up, LHM, as compared with pneumatic dilation, was not associated with superior rates of therapeutic success. (European Achalasia Trial Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR37, and Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN56304564.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Salvador R.,University of Padua | Annese V.,Ospedale Casa Sollievo Della Sofferenza | Bruley Des Varannes S.,University of Nantes | Chaussade S.,Cochin University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Background & Aims: Patients with achalasia are treated with either pneumatic dilation (PD) or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), which have comparable rates of success. We evaluated whether manometric subtype was associated with response to treatment in a large population of patients treated with either PD or LHM (the European achalasia trial). Methods: Esophageal pretreatment manometry data were collected from 176 patients who participated in the European achalasia trial. Symptoms (weight loss, dysphagia, retrosternal pain, and regurgitation) were assessed using the Eckardt score; treatment was considered successful if the Eckardt score was 3 or less. Manometric tracings were classified according to the 3 Chicago subtypes. Results: Forty-four patients had achalasia type I (25%), 114 patients had achalasia type II (65%), and 18 patients had achalasia type III (10%). After a minimum follow-up period of 2 years, success rates were significantly higher among patients with type II achalasia (96%) than type I achalasia (81%; P <.01, log-rank test) or type III achalasia (66%; P <.001, log-rank test). The success rate of PD was significantly higher than that of LHM for patients with type II achalasia (100% vs 93%; P <.05), but LHM had a higher success rate than PD for patients with type III achalasia (86% vs 40%; P =.12, difference was not statistically significant because of the small number of patients). For type I achalasia, LHM and PD had similar rates of success (81% vs 85%; P =.84). Conclusions: A higher percentage of patients with type II achalasia (based on manometric tracings) are treated successfully with PD or LHM than patients with types I and III achalasia. Success rates in type II are high for both treatment groups but significantly higher in the PD group. Patients with type III can probably best be treated by LHM. Trialregister.nl number NTR37; ISRCTN56304564. © 2013 AGA Institute. Source


Asfar P.,University of Angers | Meziani F.,University of Strasbourg | Hamel J.-F.,University of Angers | Grelon F.,Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit | And 27 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommends targeting a mean arterial pressure of at least 65 mm Hg during initial resuscitation of patients with septic shock. However, whether this blood-pressure target is more or less effective than a higher target is unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter, open-label trial, we randomly assigned 776 patients with septic shock to undergo resuscitation with a mean arterial pressure target of either 80 to 85 mm Hg (high-target group) or 65 to 70 mm Hg (low-target group). The primary end point was mortality at day 28. RESULTS: At 28 days, there was no significant between-group difference in mortality, with deaths reported in 142 of 388 patients in the high-target group (36.6%) and 132 of 388 patients in the low-target group (34.0%) (hazard ratio in the high-target group, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.38; P = 0.57). There was also no significant difference in mortality at 90 days, with 170 deaths (43.8%) and 164 deaths (42.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.30; P = 0.74). The occurrence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups (74 events [19.1%] and 69 events [17.8%], respectively; P = 0.64). However, the incidence of newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation was higher in the high-target group than in the low-target group. Among patients with chronic hypertension, those in the high-target group required less renal-replacement therapy than did those in the low-target group, but such therapy was not associated with a difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting a mean arterial pressure of 80 to 85 mm Hg, as compared with 65 to 70 mm Hg, in patients with septic shock undergoing resuscitation did not result in significant differences in mortality at either 28 or 90 days. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Souberbielle J.-C.,Necker Enfants Malades University Hospital | Cavalier E.,University of Liege | Cormier C.,Cochin University Hospital
Annales d'Endocrinologie | Year: 2015

The aim of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach of an increased serum PTH concentration in a normocalcemic, normophosphatemic patient. Detection of this biological presentation is frequent in routine practice all the more that PTH reference values established in vitamin D replete subjects with a normal renal function are used by the clinical laboratories. The first step in this diagnostic approach will be to rule out a cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Among these, the most frequent are vitamin D deficiency, very low calcium intake, impaired renal function, malabsorptions, drugs interfering with calcium/bone metabolism, such as lithium salts and antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies, hypercalciuria due to a renal calcium leak. If no cause of SHPT are evidenced, the diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should be considered. A calcium load test is a very useful tool for this diagnosis if it shows that serum PTH is not sufficiently decreased when calcemia rises frankly above the upper normal limit. In a normocalcemic patient with hypercalciuria and a high serum PTH concentration, a thiazide challenge test may help to differentiate SHPT due to a renal calcium leak from normocalcemic PHPT. Beyond the discussion of this diagnostic flowchart, we also discuss some points about the merits and the difficulties of measuring and interpreting ionized calcemia and 24-h calciuria. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Faraoni D.,Harvard University | Levy J.H.,Duke University | Albaladejo P.,Grenoble University Hospital Center | Samama C.-M.,Cochin University Hospital
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Perioperative management of patients treated with the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants is an ongoing challenge. Due to the lack of good clinical studies involving adequate monitoring and reversal therapies, management requires knowledge and understanding of pharmacokinetics, renal function, drug interactions, and evaluation of the surgical bleeding risk. Consideration of the benefit of reversal of anticoagulation is important and, for some low risk bleeding procedures, it may be in the patient's interest to continue anticoagulation. In case of major intra-operative bleeding in patients likely to have therapeutic or supra-therapeutic levels of anticoagulation, specific reversal agents/antidotes would be of value but are currently lacking. As a consequence, a multimodal approach should be taken which includes the administration of 25 to 50 U/kg 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates or 30 to 50 U/kg activated prothrombin complex concentrate (FEIBA®) in some life-threatening situations. Finally, further studies are needed to clarify the ideal therapeutic intervention. © Faraoni et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

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