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Cochin, France

Triyatni M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Triyatni M.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Berger E.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Saunier B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens

Numerous constraints significantly hamper the experimental study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Robust replication in cell culture occurs with only a few strains, and is invariably accompanied by adaptive mutations that impair in vivo infectivity/replication. This problem complicates the production and study of authentic HCV, including the most prevalent and clinically important genotype 1 (subtypes 1a and 1b). Here we describe a novel cell culture approach to generate infectious HCV virions without the HCV replication requirement and the associated cell-adaptive mutations. The system is based on our finding that the intracellular environment generated by a West-Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon rendered a mammalian cell line permissive for assembly and release of infectious HCV particles, wherein the HCV RNA with correct 5′ and 3′ termini was produced in the cytoplasm by a plasmid-driven dual bacteriophage RNA polymerase-based transcription/amplification system. The released particles preferentially contained the HCV-based RNA compared to the WNV subgenomic RNA. Several variations of this system are described with different HCV-based RNAs: (i) HCV bicistronic particles (HCVbp) containing RNA encoding the HCV structural genes upstream of a cell-adapted subgenomic replicon, (ii) HCV reporter particles (HCVrp) containing RNA encoding the bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase in place of HCV nonstructural genes, and (iii) HCV wild-type particles (HCVwt) containing unmodified RNA genomes of diverse genotypes (1a, strain H77; 1b, strain Con1; 2a, strain JFH-1). Infectivity was assessed based on the signals generated by the HCV RNA molecules introduced into the cytoplasm of target cells upon virus entry, i.e. HCV RNA replication and protein production for HCVbp in Huh-7.5 cells as well as for HCVwt in HepG2-CD81 cells and human liver slices, and SP6 RNA polymerase-driven firefly luciferase for HCVrp in target cells displaying candidate HCV surface receptors. HCV infectivity was inhibited by pre-incubation of the particles with anti-HCV antibodies and by a treatment of the target cells with leukocyte interferon plus ribavirin. The production of authentic infectious HCV particles of virtually any genotype without the adaptive mutations associated with in vitro HCV replication represents a new paradigm to decipher the requirements for HCV assembly, release, and entry, amenable to analyses of wild type and genetically modified viruses of the most clinically significant HCV genotypes. Source

Mimoun S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Andriamihaja M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chaumontet C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Atanasiu C.,Hopital Avicenne | And 5 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

Aims: Sulfide is released in the large intestine lumen by the microbiota and is an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration and a genotoxic agent in colonocytes when present in excess. Deciphering how colonocytes metabolize sulfide is an important issue. Results: In this study, using the human colonic epithelial HT-29 Glc-/+ cells, we found that 50 μM sodium hydrogen sulfide represents the threshold of concentration above which respiration is decreased. The capacity of HT-29 Glc-/+ cells to oxidize lower concentration of sulfide was associated with the expression of transcripts corresponding to the enzymes of the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU), that is, sulfide quinone reductase (SQR), dioxygenase ethylmalonic encephalopathy, and thiosulfate sulfur transferase (TST). Inhibition of cell O2 consumption by sulfide was reverted by zinc but not by calcium and iron. When the cells undergo either spontaneous or butyrate-induced differentiation, their capacity to oxidize sulfide was significantly increased. The expression levels of the genes corresponding to the enzymes of the SOU were not increased, whereas increased cellular maximal respiratory capacity and oxygen consumption by the dioxygenase were both measured. In human biopsies recovered from various parts of the large intestine, the three enzymes of the SOU were expressed. Innovation: SOU and cell respiratory capacity are crucial for sulfide detoxification in colonocytes. Conclusion: Sulfide oxidative capacity in the colonic mucosa is higher in differentiated than in proliferative epithelial cells. The cell respiratory capacity and SOU activity appear to represent major determinants allowing sulfide detoxification in colonic epithelial cells. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

The p53 gene is essential for tumor suppression, but how it does so remains unclear. Upon genotoxic or oncogenic stresses, increased p53 activity induces transient cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis, the three cornerstones of the so-called triumvirate. Accordingly, it has long been thought that p53 suppresses tumorigenesis by somehow counteracting cell proliferation or survival. However, several recently described genetically modified mice indicate that p53 can suppress tumorigenesis without triggering these three responses. Rather, as an important mechanism for tumor suppression, these mutant mice point to the ability of p53 to prevent the Warburg effect, that is to dampen glycolysis and foster mitochondrial respiration. Interestingly, these metabolic functions of p53 rely, in part, on its "unstressed" (basal) expression, a feature shared by its mechanistically linked anti-oxydant function. Together, these "conservative" activities of p53 may prevent tumor initiation by promoting and maintaining a normal oxidative metabolism and hence underly the "daily" tumor suppression by p53 in most cells. Conversely, destructive activities elicited by high p53 levels and leading to senescence or apoptosis provide a shield against partially or overtly transformed cells. This last situation, although relatively infrequent throughout life, is usual in experimental settings, which could explain the disproportionally high number of data implicating the triumvirate in tumor suppression by p53. © 2015 medecine/sciences-Inserm. Source

Pavlowsky A.,University of Paris Descartes | Pavlowsky A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pavlowsky A.,New York University | Pavlowsky A.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry

Genetic causes of intellectual disability (ID) include mutations in proteins with various functions. However, many of these proteins are enriched in synapses and recent investigations point out their crucial role in the subtle regulation of synaptic activity and dendritic spine morphogenesis. Moreover, in addition to genetic data, functional and animal model studies are providing compelling evidence that supports the emerging unifying synapse-based theory for cognitive deficit. In this review, we highlight ID-related gene products involved in synaptic morphogenesis and function, with a particular focus on the emergent signaling pathways involved in synaptic plasticity whose disruption results in cognitive deficit. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Devauchelle-Pensec V.,University of Western Brittany | Cagnard N.,University of Paris Descartes | Pers J.-O.,Brest University Hospital Center | Youinou P.,Brest University Hospital Center | And 3 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism

Objective. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a complex disorder, in part due to B cell abnormalities. Although anti-B cell therapy is promising in primary SS, no treatment has yet been demonstrated to modify the disease course. This open-label study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of rituximab in primary SS and to investigate whether expression of specific genes is associated with efficacy of this treatment. Methods. Fifteen patients with primary SS were treated in an open-label trial. Salivary gland biopsy specimens were obtained, and total RNA was extracted and amplified. Microarray analysis with the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array was used to analyze >54,000 transcripts, and potential pathways were identified. Results. With gene expression data obtained before treatment, patients could be correctly classified in terms of whether they would be responders or nonresponders to rituximab. Gene pathway analysis demonstrated that the B cell signaling pathway was the most profoundly differentially expressed before treatment in the responders compared with nonresponders. Subclassification of patients based on the level of infiltration also demonstrated differential expression of genes belonging to the interferon (IFN) pathway between responders and nonresponders. Furthermore, unsupervised analysis based on gene expression modification before and after treatment allowed identification of 8 genes that were differentially expressed between responders and nonresponders, with the difference remaining significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate the ability to elaborate a set of genes predictive of rituximab efficacy and highlight the importance of studying the differential expression of B cell and IFN pathway signaling molecules in relation to the response to anti-CD20 treatment. A randomized controlled study is currently ongoing to confirm these results. © 2010, American College of Rheumatology. Source

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