Stonington, ME, United States
Stonington, ME, United States

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PubMed | Phoenix Biotechnology, Coastside Bio Resources, Uppsala University and United Arab Emirates University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine drugs | Year: 2016

The frondosides are triterpenoid glycosides from the Atlantic sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A inhibits growth, invasion, metastases and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in diverse cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of three frondosides and their aglycone and related this to the pharmocokinetics and route of administration. Frondoside A potently inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells with an EC50 of ~1 M. Frondoside B was less potent (EC50 ~2.5 M). Frondoside C and the aglycone had no effect. At 100 g/kg, frondoside A administered to CDF mice as an i.v. bolus, the Cpmax was 129 nM, Cltb was 6.35 mL/min/m, and half-life was 510 min. With i.p. administration the Cpmax was 18.3 nM, Cltb was 127 mL/min/m and half-life was 840 min. Oral dosing was ineffective. Frondoside A (100 g/kg/day i.p.) markedly inhibited growth cancer xenografts in nude mice. The same dose delivered by oral gavage had no effect. No evidence of acute toxicity was seen with frondoside A. Frondoside A is more potent inhibitor of cancer growth than other frondosides. The glycoside component is essential for bioactivity. Frondoside A is only effective when administered systemically. Based on the current and previous studies, frondoside A appears safe and may be valuable in the treatment of cancer.


Janakiram N.B.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Mohammed A.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Zhang Y.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Choi C.-I.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2010

Sea cucumber extracts have been widely used to treat individuals with inflammatory conditions in East Asia. The present study has been designed to test potential colon cancer-preventive properties of Frondanol A5, a glycolipid extract from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, using in vivo and in vitro models of colon cancer. Chemopreventive efficacy of Frondanol A5 was evaluated on azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis using colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as efficacy marker. At 7 weeks of age, groups of rats (12 per group) were fed the AIN-76A diet, and ACFs were induced by azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Three days after azoxymethane treatment, rats were fed with the diets containing 0, 150, and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 and continued on the diets for 8 weeks, at which time ACFs were evaluated. Expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21WAF1/CIP1 were determined in ACFs. Further, Frondanol A5 (10-120 μg/mL) was studied for its growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects in the HCT-116 cell line. Dietary administration of 150 and 450 ppmof Frondanol A5 significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced total colonic ACF formation, approximately 34% to 55% (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0001), and multicrypt aberrant foci (48-68.5%, P < 0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner. ACFs in rats treated with Frondanol A5 showed significant upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 and down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen compared with control group. Frondanol A5 showed growth inhibition at S and G2-M phase with a decrease in Cdc25c and an increase in p21 WAF1/CIP with significant apoptosis associated with H2AX phosphorylation and caspase-2 cleavage in HCT116 cells. Overall, Frondanol A5 exhibits potential chemopreventive properties for colon carcinogenesis, which suggests further development of this sea cucumber extract. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 82-91. ©2010 AACR.


Janakiram N.B.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Mohammed A.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Bryant T.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Lightfoot S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2015

Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APCMin/+ mice. APCMin/+ mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APCMin/+ mice. In female APCMin/+ mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis. ©2015 AACR.


Attoub S.,United Arab Emirates University | Arafat K.,United Arab Emirates University | Gelaude A.,Ghent University | Al Sultan M.A.,United Arab Emirates University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop less toxic drugs that will improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa and was shown to be a highly safe compound. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on survival, migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo alone and in combination with cisplatin. Frondoside A caused concentration-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35, A549, NCI-H460-Luc2, MDA-MB-435, MCF-7, and HepG2 over 24 hours through a caspase 3/7-dependent cell death pathway. The IC50 concentrations (producing half-maximal inhibition) at 24 h were between 1.7 and 2.5 μM of Frondoside A. In addition, Frondoside A induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. Frondoside A (0.01 and 1 mg/kg/day i.p. for 25 days) significantly decreased the growth, the angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of LNM35 tumor xenografts in athymic mice, without obvious toxic side-effects. Frondoside A (0.1-0.5 μM) also significantly prevented basal and bFGF induced angiogenesis in the CAM angiogenesis assay. Moreover, Frondoside A enhanced the inhibition of lung tumor growth induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. These findings identify Frondoside A as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer. © 2013 Attoub et al.


Holt D.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Ma X.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Kundu N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Collin P.D.,Coastside Bio Resources | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Immunotherapy | Year: 2012

Breast malignancies often have high levels of COX-2. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) contributes to the high metastatic capacity of breast tumors. Our published data indicate that inhibiting either PGE 2 production or PGE 2-mediated signaling through the PGE 2 receptor EP4 (1 of 4 EP expressed on the malignant cell) reduces metastasis by a mechanism that requires natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-derived PGE 2 and exogenous PGE 2 are known to have direct inhibitory effects on NK cell functions, but less is known regarding which EP receptors mediate these effects. We now show that several NK functions (lysis, migration, cytokine production) are compromised in tumor-bearing mice and that tumor-produced PGE 2 interferes with NK cell functions. PGE 2 inhibits the potential of NK cells to migrate, exert cytotoxic effects, and secrete interferon γ. The ability of PGE 2 to inhibit NK cells from tumor-bearing mice is by acting on EP2 and EP4 receptors. NK cells from tumor-bearing mice were more sensitive to inhibition by EP4 and EP2 agonists compared with endogenous NK cells from healthy mice. PGE 2 was inhibitory to most NK functions of either normal or tumor-bearing mice. In contrast, there was a trend for enhanced tumor necrosis factor α production in response to PGE 2 by NK cells from tumor-bearing mice. We also report that a recently described EP4 antagonist, frondoside A, inhibits breast tumor metastasis in an NK-dependent manner and protects interferon γ production by NK cells from PGE 2-mediated suppression. Taken together these data show that NK functions are depressed in tumor-bearing hosts relative to normal NK cells and that PGE 2 suppresses NK functions by acting on EP2 and EP4 receptors. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Ma X.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Kundu N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Collin P.D.,Coastside Bio Resources | Goloubeva O.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 2 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Frondoside A, derived from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa has demonstrable anticancer activity in several models, however, the ability of Frondoside A to affect tumor metastasis has not been reported. Using a syngeneic murine model of metastatic breast cancer, we now show that Frondoside A has potent antimetastatic activity. Frondoside A given i.p. to mice bearing mammary gland-implanted mammary tumors, inhibits spontaneous tumor metastasis to the lungs. The elevated Cyclooxygenase-2 activity in many malignancies promotes tumor growth and metastasis by producing high levels of PGE2 which acts on the prostaglandin E receptors, chiefly EP4 and EP2. We examined the ability of Frondoside A to modulate the functions of these EP receptors. We now show that Frondoside A antagonizes the prostaglandin E receptors EP2 and EP4. 3H-PGE 2 binding to recombinant EP2 or EP4-expressing cells was inhibited by Frondoside A at low μM concentrations. Likewise, EP4 or EP2-linked activation of intracellular cAMP as well as EP4-mediated ERK1/2 activation were also inhibited by Frondoside A. Consistent with the antimetastatic activity observed in vivo, migration of tumor cells in vitro in response to EP4 or EP2 agonists was also inhibited by Frondoside A. These studies identify a new function for an agent with known antitumor activity, and show that the antimetastatic activity may be due in part to a novel mechanism of action. These studies add to the growing body of evidence that Frondoside A may be a promising new agent with potential to treat cancer and may also represent a potential new modality to antagonize EP4. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011.


Al Shemaili J.,United Arab Emirates University | Al Shemaili J.,Uppsala University | Mensah-Brown E.,United Arab Emirates University | Parekh K.,United Arab Emirates University | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis. While gemcitabine is the mainstay of therapy and improves quality of life, it has little impact on survival. More effective treatments are desperately needed for this disease. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A potently inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether frondoside A could enhance the anti-cancer effects of gemcitabine. Effects of frondoside A and gemcitabine alone and in combination on proliferation were investigated in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, AsPC-1 and S2013. To investigate possible synergistic effects, combinations of low concentrations of the two drugs were used for a 72 h treatment period in vitro. Growth inhibition was significantly greater with the drug combinations than their additive effects. Combinations of frondoside A and gemcitabine were tested in vivo using the athymic mouse model. Xenografts of AsPC-1 and S2013 cells were allowed to form tumours prior to treatment with the drugs alone or in combination for 30 days. Tumours grew rapidly in placebo-treated animals. Tumour growth was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. At the lowest dose tested, gemcitabine (4 mg/kg/dose), combined with frondoside A (100 μg/kg/day) was significantly more effective than with either drug alone. To conclude: The present data suggest that combinations of frondoside A and gemcitabine may provide clinical benefit for patients with pancreatic cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kundu N.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Ma X.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Kochel T.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Goloubeva O.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 7 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

The cyclooxygenase pathway is strongly implicated in breast cancer progression but the role of this pathway in the biology of breast cancer stem/progenitor cells has not been defined. Recent attention has focused on targeting the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) pathway downstream of the COX-2 enzyme by blocking the activities of individual prostaglandin E (EP) receptors. Prostaglandin E receptor 4 (EP4) is widely expressed in primary invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast and antagonizing this receptor with small molecule inhibitors or shRNA directed to EP4 inhibits metastatic potential in both syngeneic and xenograft models. Breast cancer stem/progenitor cells are defined as a subpopulation of cells that drive tumor growth, metastasis, treatment resistance, and relapse. Mammosphere-forming breast cancer cells of human (MDA-MB-231, SKBR3) or murine (66.1, 410.4) origin of basal-type, Her-2 phenotype and/or with heightened metastatic capacity upregulate expression of both EP4 and COX-2 and are more tumorigenic compared to the bulk population. In contrast, luminal-type or non-metastatic counterparts (MCF7, 410, 67) do not increase COX-2 and EP4 expression in mammosphere culture. Treatment of mammosphere-forming cells with EP4 inhibitors (RQ-15986, AH23848, Frondoside A) or EP4 gene silencing, but not with a COX inhibitor (Indomethacin) reduces both mammosphere-forming capacity and the expression of phenotypic markers (CD44 hi/CD24low, aldehyde dehydrogenase) of breast cancer stem cells. Finally, an orally delivered EP4 antagonist (RQ-08) reduces the tumor-initiating capacity and markedly inhibits both the size of tumors arising from transplantation of mammosphere-forming cells and phenotypic markers of stem cells in vivo. These studies support the continued investigation of EP4 as a potential therapeutic target and provide new insight regarding the role of EP4 in supporting a breast cancer stem cell/tumor-initiating phenotype. © 2013 The Author(s).


Roginsky A.B.,Northwestern University | Ding X.-Z.,Northwestern University | Woodward C.,Coastside Bio Resources | Ujiki M.B.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.
Pancreas | Year: 2010

Objectives: To investigate the effects and mechanism of Frondanol-A5P, a polar extract from Cucumaria frondosa, on growth inhibition and apoptosis in S2013 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. Methods: The effects of Frondanol-A5P on proliferation, cell cycle, expression of cell cycle proteins and p21waf1, phosphorylation of MAP kinases, annexin V binding, and caspase-3 activation were examined. Results: Frondanol-A5P inhibited proliferation and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in both cell lines with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cdc25c. Frondanol-A5P induced phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase and Janus kinase (SAPK/JAK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP) within 5 minutes. Frondanol-A5P markedly increased expression of waf1 messenger RNA and protein at 3 hours in both cell lines. This effect was reduced by the p38 kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Frondanol-A5P markedly increased annexin V binding and activated caspase-3. Conclusions: Frondanol-A5 causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. These changes are associated with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cdc25c and increased expression of p21waf1 that, at least in part, is mediated by a p38 kinase-dependent mechanism. Because Frondanol-A5P is derived from an edible, nontoxic, sea cucumber, it may be valuable for nutritional therapy or prevention of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2010 by Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Coastside Bio Resources, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) | Year: 2015

Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice. APC(Min/+) mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APC(Min/+) mice. In female APC(Min/+) mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis.

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