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Charlier R.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Chaineux M.-C.P.,Institute Ste Marie | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Thys A.C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2010

It might be argued that this paper does not sensu stricto contribute to "polar science." It, however, rekindles aspects of its history and of that of both oceanography and cartography. Obviously the interest for the polar regions was keen in the 19th century and elicited financial support. The paper may lift anew the veil that has somewhat dimmed the light that should shine on polar science achievements of Belgian explorers and scientists. Knowledge of the names of geographic features in the Antarctic is probably less widespread, and yet, there are many Belgian names on and near the southernmost continent. Most names were given by the head of the first-ever Antarctic expedition to spend a winter on the southernmost continent. Belgian Royal Navy Lieutenant Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery's expedition in the Antarctic brought back a wealth of scientific information. His trip ended precisely 111 years ago, and has beenliterallycarved in stone as the Belgica is indeed one of the 20 oceanographic vessels Prince Albert I of Monaco selected to be represented on the faade of the Muse Ocanographique de Monaco. © 2010 the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

Charlier R.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Charlier R.H.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Thys A.C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

On the North Sea and Channel shores the Southeastern coast of England holds perhaps the record for the number of towns gobbled up during recent - historic - times. The relative level of the sea to the land has varied over the centuries: in the late Roman period, and again from about 1250 onwards. Protective dykes were constructed but were repeatedly destroyed by the sea. There were periods of accretion that resulted for instance in the creation of the salt marshes of Essex and the Wash. Once flourishing settlements on the eastern coast of England have been completely destroyed, some before, some during the Middle Ages. Some prospering settlements disappeared under the sea in the 14th century, when major flooding occurred several times, with the worst floods in the 15th century. The coast of Flanders - Belgian area and Netherlandish Zeeland - has been the theatre of both silting and erosion. The paper provides a review of physical changes, loss of land, and their economic consequences.

Charlier R.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Charlier R.H.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Thys A.C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The Dalmatian coast has been described by an occasional poet as the site where chalk and sea meet. If in frequent political turmoil, it also has shown to be equally an area of frequent geomorphologic events. The riparian countries have been trying, with some success, to make a tourism trump of what Emmanuel de Martonne appropriately labelled une côte morcelée. The paper focuses on the region's significance as a geomorphology "textbook".

Ortega L.,Direccion Nacional de Recursos Acuaticos DINARA | Celentano E.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Finkl C.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Oretga, L.; Celentano, E.; Finkl, C., and Defeo, O., 2013. Effects of climate variability on the morphodynamics of Uruguayan sandy beaches. Effects of long-term trends in climatic variability on the morphodynamics of a reflective and a dissipative sandy beach in Uruguay (SW Atlantic Ocean) were analyzed. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) alternates between warm and cold cycles with a periodicity of roughly 70 years, with a shift toward a warm phase since 1995, resulting in an increase of sea surface temperature in the study area. Wind speed anomalies (WSA) also increased through time and were associated with an increasing speed of southerly winds, particularly after 1997. Beach morphodynamics showed no statistically significant trends in grain size, but long-term morphodynamic patterns differed between beaches: the dissipative beach showed an increase in swash and beach width, Dean's parameter, and the Beach Index (a measure of beach morphodynamic state). At the same time, the slope decreased, augmenting the beach's dissipative characteristics. The reflective beach showed an increase in slope and swash width through time, and a decrease in the Beach Index, indicating an intensification of reflective characteristics. Long-term morphodynamic changes were more evident in the dissipative beach and related to climate forcing (e.g. WSA). A higher resilience was observed in the reflective beach, even though an increasing frequency of storms is affecting both beaches. Accelerating erosion, rising sea levels, and expanding urban development in the Uruguayan coast could affect biodiversity and critical habitats. Multidisciplinary investigation programs and conservation strategies are needed to mitigate negative anthropogenic effects on these ecosystems. © 2013 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

Makowski C.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Makowski C.,Gumbo Limbo Nature Center | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Finkl C.W.,Gumbo Limbo Nature Center | Rusenko K.,Florida Atlantic University
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Throughout the world, critically eroded shorelines pose a myriad of social and environmental concerns. As an increase in natural geologic and climatic events (e.g., coastal earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, weathering) occur to facilitate erosion of the Earth's coasts, shore protection becomes critically important as a preventative measure against catastrophic environmental and socio-economic damage. However, as more and more offshore sand resources are either used up or contaminated with pollutants (e.g., crude oil sub-buoyant plumes settling at the benthic interface), there is an imperative effort to explore alternatives to more traditional sand sources. One alternative involves the use of recycled glass cullet as coastal beach fill in erosional 'hot-spots'. The cullet is obtained by processing any type of glass product (e.g., bottles, containers, tanks, etc.) in such a way that it will closely match the grain size of the current native beach sediments. This specific type of recycled processing has been successful in adequately matching natural said grains. However, before the recycled glass can be directly applied to the shoreline, a series of analyses had to occur in order to determine the suitability of the cullet for a natural beach environment. This paper is a concise review of the geotechnical, biological, and abiotic analyses conducted on the recycled glass cullet for coastal protection.

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