Coastal Education and Research Foundation

West Palm Beach, FL, United States

Coastal Education and Research Foundation

West Palm Beach, FL, United States

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Charlier R.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Chaineux M.-C.P.,Institute Ste Marie | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Thys A.C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2010

It might be argued that this paper does not sensu stricto contribute to "polar science." It, however, rekindles aspects of its history and of that of both oceanography and cartography. Obviously the interest for the polar regions was keen in the 19th century and elicited financial support. The paper may lift anew the veil that has somewhat dimmed the light that should shine on polar science achievements of Belgian explorers and scientists. Knowledge of the names of geographic features in the Antarctic is probably less widespread, and yet, there are many Belgian names on and near the southernmost continent. Most names were given by the head of the first-ever Antarctic expedition to spend a winter on the southernmost continent. Belgian Royal Navy Lieutenant Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery's expedition in the Antarctic brought back a wealth of scientific information. His trip ended precisely 111 years ago, and has beenliterallycarved in stone as the Belgica is indeed one of the 20 oceanographic vessels Prince Albert I of Monaco selected to be represented on the faade of the Muse Ocanographique de Monaco. © 2010 the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).


Makowski C.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Makowski C.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Rusenko K.,Gumbo Limbo Nature Center
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Makowski, C.; Finkl, C.W., and Rusenko, K., 2013. Suitability of recycled glass cullet as artificial dune fill along coastal environments. Coastal dune systems are an integral component of maintaining a sustainable, well-performing beach. With the aid of dune-stabilizing vegetation, constructed foredunes provide a "natural" armorment behind the dry berm to help protect the backshore from storm surge and intense overwash. However, as the costs of beach nourishment continue to inflate, the urgency to construct or restabilize the foredune area of the beach is often overlooked. Furthermore, to compound the problem, suitable sand resources are becoming unobtainable because of regulatory restrictions, prompting engineers and coastal zone managers to use all available dredged sediments for berm and beach face replenishment. In order to provide an alternative method for dune construction, this study examined the suitability of recycled glass cullet as an artificial dune fill material. After construction of an artificial dune was completed, recycled (silica) glass cullet and natural beach sand were provided as growth mediums for dune-stabilizing vegetation. Immature transplants of sea oats (Uniola paniculata) and panic grass (Panicum amarum) were planted in the artificial dune and evaluated over a 1-year growing period. Suitability of the recycled glass cullet was determined through the overall performance of the salt-tolerant plants, which included fresh and dry weight measurements, new shoot development, and root and stalk length. It was determined that both species of dune-stabilizing vegetation planted in a recycled glass medium outperformed those specimens growing in the natural beach sediment controls. We postulate that the results may stem from a slight increase in the angularity of the recycled cullet vs. the natural sand grains. This minuscule planar difference in the surface area of the grains may contribute to more aggregated moisture content within a recycled glass cullet dune, allowing for optimal growing conditions for dune vegetation. By showing this positive suitability of recycled glass cullet as artificial dune fill, a new, innovative method for dune protection may now be considered. © 2013 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.


Makowski C.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Makowski C.,Gumbo Limbo Nature Center | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Finkl C.W.,Gumbo Limbo Nature Center | Rusenko K.,Florida Atlantic University
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Throughout the world, critically eroded shorelines pose a myriad of social and environmental concerns. As an increase in natural geologic and climatic events (e.g., coastal earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, weathering) occur to facilitate erosion of the Earth's coasts, shore protection becomes critically important as a preventative measure against catastrophic environmental and socio-economic damage. However, as more and more offshore sand resources are either used up or contaminated with pollutants (e.g., crude oil sub-buoyant plumes settling at the benthic interface), there is an imperative effort to explore alternatives to more traditional sand sources. One alternative involves the use of recycled glass cullet as coastal beach fill in erosional 'hot-spots'. The cullet is obtained by processing any type of glass product (e.g., bottles, containers, tanks, etc.) in such a way that it will closely match the grain size of the current native beach sediments. This specific type of recycled processing has been successful in adequately matching natural said grains. However, before the recycled glass can be directly applied to the shoreline, a series of analyses had to occur in order to determine the suitability of the cullet for a natural beach environment. This paper is a concise review of the geotechnical, biological, and abiotic analyses conducted on the recycled glass cullet for coastal protection.


Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Vollmer H.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Remote sensing of coastal marine environments has long challenged coastal researchers who have searched for automated methods based on supervised classifications. Due to complexities in water clarity and attenuation of spectral reflection with water depth, this study focused on visual interpretation of IKONOS satellite images in an effort to ascertain the general nature of bottom types. Development of a seafloor topology for a portion of the Key West National Wildlife Refuge in Monroe County, Florida (between Key West, Florida, and the Dry Tortugas) resulted in 96 mapping units. The natural complexity of this environment required classification units that were defined by numeric codes that were keyed to a classification system developed for this area. These units, defined in a stepwise procedure, were predicated on the geomorphologic base, context of the geomorphological zone, biological cover, and percentage of that cover. The GIS attribute table, built with a multi-discipline interpretation in mind, was constructed to allow end user flexibility when extracting the information related to major biological cover, detailed geological cover, etc. Suffixes were added to further interpret areas with diverse biological cover. The IKONOS satellite images were found to be useful tools for mapping coastal marine environments at a nominal scale of 1:6000.


Charlier R.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Charlier R.H.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Thys A.C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The Dalmatian coast has been described by an occasional poet as the site where chalk and sea meet. If in frequent political turmoil, it also has shown to be equally an area of frequent geomorphologic events. The riparian countries have been trying, with some success, to make a tourism trump of what Emmanuel de Martonne appropriately labelled une côte morcelée. The paper focuses on the region's significance as a geomorphology "textbook".


Charlier R.H.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Charlier R.H.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Thys A.C.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

On the North Sea and Channel shores the Southeastern coast of England holds perhaps the record for the number of towns gobbled up during recent - historic - times. The relative level of the sea to the land has varied over the centuries: in the late Roman period, and again from about 1250 onwards. Protective dykes were constructed but were repeatedly destroyed by the sea. There were periods of accretion that resulted for instance in the creation of the salt marshes of Essex and the Wash. Once flourishing settlements on the eastern coast of England have been completely destroyed, some before, some during the Middle Ages. Some prospering settlements disappeared under the sea in the 14th century, when major flooding occurred several times, with the worst floods in the 15th century. The coast of Flanders - Belgian area and Netherlandish Zeeland - has been the theatre of both silting and erosion. The paper provides a review of physical changes, loss of land, and their economic consequences.


Finkl C.W.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Pelinovsky E.,RAS Institute of Applied Physics | Cathcart R.B.,Geographos
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2012

Tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red Seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could directly affect the Suez Canal and operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally impact the Nile Delta, whereas numerical models indicate a multidecadal frequency. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would begin to break about 4 to 10 km down-canal, whereas a 10-m wave break would occur about 0.5 to 3 km into the Canal. © 2012 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.


Ortega L.,Direccion Nacional de Recursos Acuaticos DINARA | Celentano E.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Finkl C.,Florida Atlantic University | Finkl C.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Oretga, L.; Celentano, E.; Finkl, C., and Defeo, O., 2013. Effects of climate variability on the morphodynamics of Uruguayan sandy beaches. Effects of long-term trends in climatic variability on the morphodynamics of a reflective and a dissipative sandy beach in Uruguay (SW Atlantic Ocean) were analyzed. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) alternates between warm and cold cycles with a periodicity of roughly 70 years, with a shift toward a warm phase since 1995, resulting in an increase of sea surface temperature in the study area. Wind speed anomalies (WSA) also increased through time and were associated with an increasing speed of southerly winds, particularly after 1997. Beach morphodynamics showed no statistically significant trends in grain size, but long-term morphodynamic patterns differed between beaches: the dissipative beach showed an increase in swash and beach width, Dean's parameter, and the Beach Index (a measure of beach morphodynamic state). At the same time, the slope decreased, augmenting the beach's dissipative characteristics. The reflective beach showed an increase in slope and swash width through time, and a decrease in the Beach Index, indicating an intensification of reflective characteristics. Long-term morphodynamic changes were more evident in the dissipative beach and related to climate forcing (e.g. WSA). A higher resilience was observed in the reflective beach, even though an increasing frequency of storms is affecting both beaches. Accelerating erosion, rising sea levels, and expanding urban development in the Uruguayan coast could affect biodiversity and critical habitats. Multidisciplinary investigation programs and conservation strategies are needed to mitigate negative anthropogenic effects on these ecosystems. © 2013 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.


Finkl C.W.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation | Makowski C.,Coastal Education and Research Foundation
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2015

The determination of seafloor geomorphological features has always been a difficult task, and it was not until the advent of marine remote sensing techniques that seafloor features could be accurately discerned. Airborne acquisition of digital bathymetric data provides a wealth of information that can be interpreted in different ways. This paper considers the pros and cons of computerized autoclassifications versus cognitive interpretations of seafloor features. The continental shelf off the southeast Florida coast contains LADS (laser airborne depth sounding) surveys that are here used to compare and contrast automated classifications of bathymetry with cognitive differentiation of marine geomorphological features. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each approach, and the choice of methods depends on the purpose or goals of the project. Once seafloor features have been cognitively discerned from enhanced, color ramped, and vertically exaggerated bathymetry, machine classifications can be compared with known units. Using ArcGIS® ArcMap software, five- and seven-class unsupervised isocluster autoclassifications were found to moderately represent known bottom topography, whereas the interactive supervised autoclassification closely approximated cognitively discerned bathymetric patterns. Hand-drawn or digitized cognitively derived maps were more generalized than supervised computerized classifications based on training fields. Overall, both methods were found to be beneficial approaches, as they complement each other. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2015.

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