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Baeza J.A.,Católica del Norte University | Bauer R.T.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Okuno J.,Coastal Branch of Natural History Museum and Institute Chiba | Thiel M.,Católica del Norte University
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

The Rhynchocinetidae ('hinge-beak' shrimps) is a family of marine caridean decapods with considerable variation in sexual dimorphism, male weaponry, mating tactics, and sexual systems. Thus, this group is an excellent model with which to analyse the evolution of these important characteristics, which are of interest not only in shrimps specifically but also in animal taxa in general. Yet, there exists no phylogenetic hypothesis, either molecular or morphological, for this taxon against which to test either the evolution of behavioural traits within the Rhynchocinetidae or its genealogical relationships with other caridean taxa. In this study, we tested (1) hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships of rhynchocinetid shrimps, and (2) the efficacy of different (one-, two-, and three-phase) methods to generate a reliable phylogeny. Total genomic DNA was extracted from tissue samples taken from 17 species of Rhynchocinetidae and five other species currently or previously assigned to the same superfamily (Nematocarcinoidea); six species from other superfamilies were used as outgroups. Sequences from two nuclear genes (H3 and Enolase) and one mitochondrial gene (12S) were used to construct phylogenies. One-phase phylogenetic analyses (SATé-II) and classical two- and three-phase phylogenetic analyses were employed, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Both a two-gene data set (H3 and Enolase) and a three-gene data set (H3, Enolase, 12S) were utilized to explore the relationships amongst the targeted species. These analyses showed that the superfamily Nematocarcinoidea, as currently accepted, is polyphyletic. Furthermore, the two major clades recognized by the SATé-II analysis are clearly concordant with the genera Rhynchocinetes and Cinetorhynchus, which are currently recognized in the morphological-based classification (implicit phylogeny) as composing the family Rhynchocinetidae. The SATé-II method is considered superior to the other phylogenetic analyses employed, which failed to recognize these two major clades. Studies using more genes and a more complete species data set are needed to test yet unresolved inter- and intrafamilial systematic and evolutionary questions about this remarkable clade of caridean shrimps. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London.

Kikuchi N.,Coastal Branch of Natural History Museum and Institute Chiba | Nakada T.,Keio University | Niwa K.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2015

Porphyra tenera Kjellm. and Po. yezoensis Ueda, two species cultivated as nori in Japan, were transferred to the genus Pyropia J. Agardh on the basis of the molecular phylogenetic analysis. However, valid combinations for their infraspecific taxa, Porphyra tenera var. tamatsuensis A. Miura and "Po. yezoensis f. narawaensis," vigorously growing taxa with elongated blades cultivated in Japan, have never been proposed. The two taxa are clearly infraspecific in the respective species on the basis of the molecular data. Since Miura (1984) designated two gatherings on different dates as "holotype" of "Po. yezoensis f. narawaensis" contrary to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants {Melbourne Code), the name was not validly published. Therefore we propose a new combination: Pyropia tenera (Kjellm.) N. Kikuchi, Miyata, M. S. Hwang & H. G. Choi var. tamatsuensis (A. Miura) N. Kikuchi, Niwa & Nakada and a new valid name: Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M. S. Hwang & H. G. Choi f. narawaensis N. Kikuchi, Niwa & Nakada.

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