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Thawonsuwan J.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | Soonsan P.,Krabi Coastal Aquaculture Development Center | Keawtapee C.,Phuket Coastal Aquaculture Development Center
Fish Pathology | Year: 2016

The first isolation of Vibrio vulnificus ibotype I from disease outbreaks in cultured tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Forsskal, 1775 in southern Thailand has been described. Gross signs of diseased fish included dark coloration of body, anorexia, petechial hemorrhages in the skin of the tail and fins and ulceration of the skin. Hemorrhagic septicemia was observed in intestine, body cavity and spleen. The 205-bp amplified DNA fragment of the hemolysin gene (vvhA) was detected from all of bacterial isolates, indicating V. vulnificus. Bacteria showed characteristics of biotype 1, the human clinical isolate, as indicated by their motility, positive results for indole production, ornithine decarboxylation activity, acid production from D-mannitol and growth at 42°C. The human virulence potential of V. vulnificus isolates using three biomarkers, 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), vvhA gene and virulence-correlated gene (vcg), showed that genotypes of V. vulnificus was the clinical-type with two profiles. The susceptibility of tiger grouper to V. vulnificus isolate was performed by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with 106 CFU/mL bacterial suspensions. The experimentally injected tiger grouper had mortalities within 5 days post-injection and developed clinical signs similar to those found in disease outbreak. In a vaccination trial, the tiger grouper vaccinated with formalin inactivated whole-cell vaccine exhibited relative percent survival (RPS) of 68% following homologous isolate challenge. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain that caused disease in tiger groupers is similar to V. vulnificus pathogenic to humans. © 2016 The Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.


Yangthong M.,Prince of Songkla University | Yangthong M.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi | Hutadilok-Towatana N.,Rangsit University | Thawonsuwan J.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | Phromkunthong W.,Prince of Songkla University
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2016

The effects of the hot water extract from Sargassum sp. on the growth performance, immune responses, oxidative stress, and resistance of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) to Streptococcus iniae were investigated. Four groups of fish were fed on the basal diet containing the extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg−1 diet for 30 days. Thereafter, the fish from each group were divided into equal halves. The first half was injected intraperitoneally with 0.85 % NaCl, and the second half was injected with S. iniae (2 × 103 cfu fish−1). At the end of the 30 days feeding trial, there were no significant differences in final body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index among four groups. Plasma protein, total immunoglobulin (Ig), and lysozyme messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in fish fed on diets containing 1.0 and 2.0 g kg−1 of Sargassum sp. extract, however, became increased in a non-dose-dependent manner. When fish were exposed to the bacteria, at 24 h, there were significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of hematocrit, red blood cell and white blood cell, Ig, and serum lysozyme in fish fed on diet containing 2.0 g kg−1 of Sargassum sp. extract than those of the fish fed the control diet, and the highest survival rate was also observed in this group. In addition, fish receiving the seaweed extract were able to suppress lipid peroxidation especially at 24-h post S. iniae challenge. These findings thus suggested that Sargassum sp. extract can be used as an immunostimulant in Asian sea bass. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Tinwongger S.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Proespraiwong P.,Charoen Pokphand Foods Public CO. | Thawonsuwan J.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | Sriwanayos P.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Fish Pathology | Year: 2014

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by a unique strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has a plasmid harboring virulent genes. A rapid and accurate diagnosis method is necessary for surveillance of this infectious disease in aquaculture. In this study, three primer sets (TUMSAT-Vp1, Vp2 and Vp3) were designed based on the plasmid DNA sequence. We examined 98 strains of bacteria isolated from shrimp farms in different areas in Thailand. These included 48 strains of V. parahaemolyticus (AHPND strain), 38 strains of non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus and 12 strains of non-V. parahaemolyticus. All the AHPND strains were detected by TUMSAT-Vp1, Vp2 and Vp3. However, one non-AHPND strain tested positive for TUMSAT-Vp1 and Vp2. The accuracy of AHPND detection was validated with two other primer publicly available sets (AP1 nad AP2). AP1 and AP2 primers gave a few false positives in non-AHPND strains. Only TUMSAT-Vp3 primer detected the AHPND strains examined in this study with 100% accuracy. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.


Kiron V.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Kiron V.,Bodo University College | Thawonsuwan J.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Thawonsuwan J.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2011

The antioxidant defence and immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that had received plant oils, rich in either n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; linseed oil) or n-6 PUFA (safflower oil) was evaluated upon antigen exposure. The fish employed in this study had been offered the diets for 18months from the first feeding. Rainbow trout from each group were injected intraperitoneally with formalin-killed bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) or were sham-injected and observations were made 24h later. Though the fish fed safflower oil seemed to be under relatively greater oxidative stress, the antioxidant defences (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) were as effective as in those fed linseed oil. The humoral (alternate complement activity and lysozyme activity) and cellular (phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation) immune responses were not significantly affected by the oil offered. With the exception of reactive oxygen production that was significantly greater in the linseed oil fed fish, both groups did not differ greatly in their immune responses after antigen exposure. Thus, fish fed safflower oil that was deficient in n-3 PUFA was able to sustain most of the critical responses similar to those fed linseed oil suggesting that plant oils of both fatty acid categories were effective for this fresh water fish. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Thawonsuwan J.,Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute | Kiron V.,Bodo University College | Satoh S.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Panigrahi A.,Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Verlhac V.,Aquaculture Research Group
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a very potent antioxidant derived from green tea, was compared with vitamin E in terms of its effects on antioxidant defense and immune response of rainbow trout, by means of a feeding trial of eight weeks. Two of the experimental diets were supplemented with EGCG at either 20 or 100 mg kg-1 diet (which contained only 30% of the intended levels) and the third was provided with 100 mg kg-1 vitamin E but not EGCG. The control diet was not supplemented with the test components. Observation of tissue levels indicated that the high amount of EGCG helped to increase the availability of the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E. The lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide in the liver of fish fed the higher amount of EGCG suggested that it was an effective antioxidant. Considering the immune indices, EGCG and vitamin E at 100 mg (actual amounts 31.9 and 94.1 mg kg-1 diet, respectively) had identical capabilities in improving phagocytic activity and controlling hydrogen peroxide production by leucocytes. However, EGCG could possibly be more effective at enhancing serum lysozyme activity and the alternative complement activity. This work revealed the potential of EGCG as an antioxidant and an immunostimulant for rainbow trout, at least at the inclusion level of 32 mg kg-1 diet. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Coastal Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Fish physiology and biochemistry | Year: 2010

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a very potent antioxidant derived from green tea, was compared with vitamin E in terms of its effects on antioxidant defense and immune response of rainbow trout, by means of a feeding trial of eight weeks. Two of the experimental diets were supplemented with EGCG at either 20 or 100 mg kg(-1) diet (which contained only 30% of the intended levels) and the third was provided with 100 mg kg(-1) vitamin E but not EGCG. The control diet was not supplemented with the test components. Observation of tissue levels indicated that the high amount of EGCG helped to increase the availability of the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E. The lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide in the liver of fish fed the higher amount of EGCG suggested that it was an effective antioxidant. Considering the immune indices, EGCG and vitamin E at 100 mg (actual amounts 31.9 and 94.1 mg kg(-1) diet, respectively) had identical capabilities in improving phagocytic activity and controlling hydrogen peroxide production by leucocytes. However, EGCG could possibly be more effective at enhancing serum lysozyme activity and the alternative complement activity. This work revealed the potential of EGCG as an antioxidant and an immunostimulant for rainbow trout, at least at the inclusion level of 32 mg kg(-1) diet.

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