Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc.

Vero Beach, FL, United States

Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc.

Vero Beach, FL, United States
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Frometa J.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | DeLorenzo M.E.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Pisarski E.C.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | Etnoyer P.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2017

Benthic surveys of mesophotic reefs in the Gulf of Mexico post Deepwater Horizon (DWH) showed that Swiftia exserta octocorals exhibited significantly more injury than in years before the spill. To determine the vulnerability of S. exserta to oil and dispersants, 96h toxicity assays of surrogate DWH oil water-accommodated fractions (WAF), Corexit® 9500 dispersant, and the combination of both (CEWAF) were conducted in the laboratory. Fragment mortality occurred within 48h for some fragments in the dispersant-alone and oil-dispersant treatments, while the WAF group remained relatively unaffected. The 96h LC50 values were 70.27mg/L for Corexit-alone and 41.04mg/L for Corexit in CEWAF. This study provides new information on octocoral sensitivity to toxins, and indicates that combinations of oil and dispersants are more toxic to octocorals than exposure to oil alone. These results have important implications for the assessment of effects of the DWH spill on deep-water organisms. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Seroka G.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | Xu Y.,State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal ResearchEast China Normal UniversityShanghai China
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2017

Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. © 2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Dale P.E.,Griffith University | Knight J.M.,Griffith University | Griffin L.,Griffith University | Beidler J.,Indian River Mosquito Control District | And 13 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2014

A group of researchers, mosquito and coastal managers, and consultants joined together to explore issues of concern to coastal and mosquito management in mangrove forests. At a 1-day workshop in Florida, participants identified issues that are important for their roles. The issues were subsequently compiled into a matrix and the participants were asked to individually assess the importance and urgency of each. The most important issues for everyone included habitat responses to management, community attitude, public education, interaction between agencies, local connectivity, sea-level rise (SLR) loss of wetlands, and conservation. Most urgent were public education, conservation easements, local connectivity, SLR, loss of wetland, restoration, and conservation. There were differing viewpoints among the roles that appeared to be related to responsibility for and ability to influence on-ground outcomes. This is reflected in mosquito and coastal managers who viewed issues broadly and ascribed higher levels of importance and urgency to them than did researchers and consultants. We concluded that collaboration is a key issue. Barriers to collaboration include knowledge differences between agencies. Facilitators of collaboration include interaction, trust, and shared goals. © 2014 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

Tornabene L.,Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi | Gilmore R.G.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | Robertson D.R.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Young F.,Dynasty Marine Associates | Baldwin C.C.,Smithsonian Institution
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2016

The Nes subgroup of the Gobiosomatini (Teleostei: Gobiiformes: Gobiidae) is an ecologically diverse clade of fishes endemic to the tropical western Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. It has been suggested that morphological characters in gobies tend to evolve via reduction and loss associated with miniaturization, and this, coupled with the parallel evolution of adaptations to similar microhabitats, may lead to homoplasy and ultimately obscure our ability to discern phylogenetic relationships using morphological characters alone. This may be particularly true for the Nes subgroup of gobies, where several genera that are diagnosed by 'reductive characters' have been shown to be polyphyletic. Here we present the most comprehensive phylogeny to date of the Nes subgroup using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We then evaluate the congruence between the distribution of morphological characters and our molecular tree using maximum-likelihood ancestral state reconstruction, and test for phylogenetic signal in characters using Pagel's λ tree transformations (Nature, 401, 1999 and 877). Our results indicate that all of the characters previously used to diagnose genera of the Nes subgroup display some degree of homoplasy with respect to our molecular tree; however, many characters display considerable phylogenetic signal and thus may be useful in diagnosing genera when used in combination with other characters. We present a new classification for the group in which all genera are monophyletic and in most cases diagnosed by combinations of morphological characters. The new classification includes four new genera and nine new species described here, many of which were collected from rarely sampled deep Caribbean reefs using manned submersibles. The group now contains 38 species in the genera Carrigobius gen. nov., Chriolepis, Eleotrica, Gobulus, Gymneleotris, Nes, Paedovaricus gen. nov., Pinnichthys gen. nov., Psilotris, and Varicus. Lastly, we provide a key to all named species of the Nes subgroup along with photographs and illustrations to aid in identification. © 2016 The Linnean Society of London.

Bryan D.R.,University of Miami | Bryan D.R.,Nova Southeastern University | Kilfoyle K.,Nova Southeastern University | Kilfoyle K.,National Coral Reef Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2013

The southeastern coast of Florida, USA supports a substantial recreational fishery, yet little is known of the coral reef ecosystem or fisheries resources past 50 m depth. Fish assemblages associated with low-relief substrate and three vessel reefs between 50 and 120 m depth off southeast Florida were surveyed by remotely operated vehicles providing the first characterization of the mesophotic fish assemblages in the region. Two distinct assemblages were observed on low-relief substrate and high-relief vessel reefs. A total of 560 fishes of 42 species was recorded on 27 dives on low-relief substrate, and 50 152 fishes of 65 species were recorded on 24 dives on three vessel reefs. Small planktivorous Anthiinae fishes and several economically valuable species were common on vessel reefs but rare on low-relief substrate. Fish assemblages on vessel reefs more closely resembled those found at similar depths in high-relief natural areas off east-central Florida and the Gulf of Mexico than those associated with adjacent low-relief habitat or nearby coral reef tracts. From a fisheries perspective, these results provide limited support to the hypothesis that in deep-water regions with limited relief, vessel reefs may provide an opportunity to increase fish diversity and abundance by creating high-relief habitat without compromising adjacent fish assemblages. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Blair A.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | Sanger D.,South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium | White D.,Clemson University | Holland A.F.,1906 Long Creek Road | And 3 more authors.
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2014

We developed the Stormwater Runoff Modeling System (SWARM) based on curve number and unit hydrograph methods of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. SWARM models single events, targets watersheds fitting easily within hydrologic units with 12-digit codes, and has been calibrated for low-gradient topography of the Southeast coastal plain. We established protocols; made changes related to peak rate factors, travel time formulas, curve numbers, and the initial abstraction ratio; and then tested the output with multi-site validation using U.S. Geological Survey measurements of discharge and rainfall. Validation results from both undeveloped and developed watersheds support the robustness of our system in quantifying and simulating runoff: rainfall to runoff differences between measured and simulated volumes ranged from 3 to 11%; r2 for hydrograph curves ranged from 0.82 to 0.98. SWARM can be a useful tool for scientific research and for coastal resource management and decision making in the Southeast coastal plain specifically and also may be applied to other areas by recalibrating parameters and modifying calculation templates. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Blair A.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | Lovelace S.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc. | Sanger D.,South Carolina Department of Natural Resources | Holland A.F.,1906 Long Creek Road | And 2 more authors.
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2014

Stormwater runoff is a leading cause of non-point source pollution in urbanizing areas, and runoff effects will be exacerbated by climate's changing patterns of precipitation. To enhance understanding of impacts of development and climate change on stormwater runoff in small watersheds (< 6500ha), we developed the Stormwater Runoff Modeling System (SWARM), a simple modeling system based on U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service curve number and unit hydrograph methods. The objective of this paper is to describe the applications possible with SWARM and to demonstrate its usefulness in exploring the impacts of development and climate change on runoff. Results encompass a range of impact scenarios. One development scenario shows that the amount of rainfall converted to runoff is 27% for an undeveloped area and 67% for a highly developed area. A climate scenario shows that the amount of rainfall converted to runoff in a medium developed area is 25% in drought conditions and 76% in wet conditions. User-friendly templates make SWARM a good tool for scientific research, for resource management and decision making, and for community science education. The modeling system also supports the investigation of social and economic impacts to communities as they adapt to increased development and climate change. Although we calibrated SWARM specifically to the southeast coastal plain, it can be applied to other regions by recalibrating parameters and modifying calculation templates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Baumberger R.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Brown-Peterson N.J.,University of Southern Mississippi | Reed J.K.,Florida Atlantic University | Gilmore R.G.,Coastal and Ocean Sciences Inc.
Copeia | Year: 2010

A large spawning aggregation of Polymixia lowei, Beardfish, was documented via video and specimen collection in a deep-water (413 m) sinkhole off Key West, Florida on 5 June 2007. The use of the human-occupied submersible, Johnson-Sea-Link II, allowed for in situ observations, video documentation, and specimen collection. The maximum density (117 fish m-2), average abundance (56 fish m-2), and average standard length (152.1 mm) were estimated from video transects. Ovarian histology of the fish collected indicated recent spawning activity. Observations of a deep scattering layer above the sinkhole by echo sounder suggested that P. lowei were in the water column during the pre-dawn hours. This represents the first report of aggregating behavior for reproduction in P. lowei. © 2010 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

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