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Kumar A.,COAE and T | Hooda V.S.,COAE and T | Mukesh S.,Agricultural Engineer
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

A two-year field study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 at Karnal (Haryana), to evaluate tillage and crop establishment (TCE) options with an objective to improve yield, water productivity and profitability in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The TCE methods had a significant effect on rice yields. Grain yield of mechanically transplanted rice (MTR) in puddled soil was significantly higher (10-22%) than all the other treatments in both the years of study. Conventional till direct seeded rice (CT-DSR) and zero-till direct seeded rice (ZT-DSR) consumed 12-17% less water as compared to puddled transplanted (manual or mechanical) rice during 2011, whereas during 2012, it consumed 5-9% more water than puddled transplanted rice. DSR (CT or ZT) and mechanical transplanting (under both puddled and unpuddled conditions) resulted in a labour saving of 7-8% and 6-12% as compared to manual puddled transplanting, respectively. The benefit: cost ratio was highest in MTR in puddled soil followed by ZT-DSR and was minimum in mechanically transplanted rice in unpuddled soil. Energy output: input ratio was highest in MTR (4.1) in puddled soil followed by manual transplanting (3.7) and was minimum in MTR in unpuddled soil (3.2).

Kaur M.,PEC | Kaur M.,COAE and T
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2012

In this constructed environment, the rising cost of building construction materials is the factor of great concern. The prices of building materials are rising day by day. The coarse aggregates are the main ingredients of concrete. In this paper, the utilization of coconut shell as a coarse aggregate has been discussed based on the results obtained from comprehensive review of literature. We all want that our buildings must be strong and should build with the construction material of reasonable rates. Every construction industry totally relies on cement, sand and aggregates for the production of concrete. Nowadays, most of the researchers are doing the research on the material which can reduce the cost of construction as well as increase the strength. Some of the waste materials are used in concrete according to their properties. For instance fly ash, rice husk, slag and sludge from the treatment of industrial and domestic waste water have been found suitable as partial replacement for cement in concrete. The coconut shell is a material which can be a substitute for aggregates. The shell of the coconut is mostly used as an ornament and as a source of activated carbon. The powdered shell is also used in the industries of plastics, glues, and abrasive materials. The use of coconut shells can also help the prevention of the environment and also help economically. Sun drying shell should be used to make sure biodegradable materials decay before its mixing with concrete. It also contributes to sustainable construction. The aim of this paper is to spread awareness about the utilization of coconut shell as a construction material in civil engineering. © Research India Publications.

Ramya H.G.,COAE and T | Palanimuthu V.,AICRP on PHT | Rachna S.,KVK Inc
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2013

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) is a plant from Lamiaceae family, well known for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Patchouli is grown for its essential oil. Patchouli essential oil is mainly obtained by steam distillation of the shade dried leaves. It is widely appreciated for its characteristic pleasant and long lasting woody, earthy, camphoraceous odour. It is especially notable as the essential oil extracted is internationally important and valuable, principally for the aromatherapy, perfumery, cosmetics, incense stick production and food flavouring industries. This review attempted to give an overview of the relationship between aromatherapy and essential oils, importance of patchouli, harvesting pattern of patchouli, basics behind drying and steam distillation of patchouli crop, as well as trends existing in the various markets for essential oil application and its importance to mankind.

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