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Kwek J.H.L.,University of Melbourne | Kwek J.H.L.,Co operative Research Center for Innovative Dairy Products | Kwek J.H.L.,Monash University | Wynne A.,Deakin University | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

S100 proteins are calcium-binding proteins involved in controlling diverse intracellular and extracellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and antimicrobial function. We recently identified a S100-like cDNA from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) stomach. Phylogentic analysis shows wallaby S100A19 forms a new clade with other marsupial and monotreme S100A19, while this group shows similarity to eutherian S100A7 and S100A15 genes. This is also supported by amino acid and domain comparisons. We show S100A19 is developmentally-regulated in the tammar wallaby gut by demonstrating the gene is expressed in the forestomach of young animals at a time when the diet consists of only milk, but is absent in older animals when the diet is supplemented with herbage. During this transition the forestomach phenotype changes from a gastric stomach into a fermentation sac and intestinal flora changes with diet. We also show that S100A19 is expressed in the mammary gland of the tammar wallaby only during specific stages of lactation; the gene is up-regulated during pregnancy and involution and not expressed during the milk production phase of lactation. Comparison of the tammar wallaby S100A19 protein sequence with S100 protein sequences from eutherian, monotreme and other marsupial species suggest the marsupial S100A19 has two functional EF hand domains, and an extended His tail. An evolutionary analysis of S100 family proteins was carried out to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the S100 family member functions. We propose that S100A19 gene/protein is the ancestor of the eutherian S100A7 gene/protein, which has subsequently modified its original function in eutherians. This modified function may have arisen due to differentiation of evolutionary pressures placed on gut and mammary gland developmental during mammal evolution. The highly regulated differential expression patterns of S100A19 in the tammar wallaby suggests that S100A19 may play a role in gut development, which differs between metatherians and eutherians, and/or include a potential antibacterial role in order to establish the correct flora and protect against spiral bacteria in the immature forestomach. In the mammary gland it may protect the tissue from infection at times of vulnerability during the lactation cycle. © 2013.

Cooney M.A.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | Cooney M.A.,Co operative Research Center for Innovative Dairy Products | Malcuit C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Cheon B.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 4 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2010

Injection of mammalian sperm extracts or cRNA of the sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCZ1) has been shown to trigger repetitive oscillations in the concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i), leading to oocyte activation and embryo development in all mammals studied to date. While PLCZ1 has cross-species activity, it has also been observed that species-specific differences may exist in the frequency and pattern of the resulting [Ca2+]i oscillations following PLCZ1 cRNA injection into oocytes of different species. Accordingly, we used a crossover design strategy to directly investigate the activity of murine and bovine PLCZ1 in both murine and bovine oocytes. In murine oocytes, injection of murine Plcz1 cRNA induced [Ca2+]i oscillations at 10-fold lower concentrations than bovine PLCZ1, although in bovine oocytes bovine PLCZ1 was more effective than murine Plcz1 at inducing [Ca2+]i oscillations. Investigation of ITPR1 (IP3R1) down-regulation in bovine oocytes by PLCZ1 cRNA also showed that bovine PLCZ1 was more active in homologous oocytes. To determine whether these PLCZs exhibited similar cellular distribution, Venus-tagged PLCZ1 cRNA was injected into oocytes, and PLCZ1 was overexpressed. Bovine PLCZ1 failed to accumulate in the pronucleus (PN) of bovine or murine zygotes, despite possessing a putative nuclear localization signal. Conversely, murine PLCZ1 accumulated in the PN of both murine and bovine zygotes. These results demonstrate that murine PLCZ1 and bovine PLCZ1 possess species-specific differences in activity and suggest potential differences in the mode of action of the protein between the two species. Variation in sperm PLCZ1 protein content among species, along with oocyte-specific differences in the localization and availability of PLCZ1 substrates, may further contribute to optimize the activation stimulus to enhance embryo development. © 2010 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

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