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De Ron P.,Non Clinical Development | Dremier S.,Non Clinical Development | Winlow P.,Non Clinical Development | Winlow P.,University of Leeds | And 4 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

The mechanisms of action of modafinil continue to be poorly characterised and its potential for abuse in preclinical models remains controverted. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanism of action of modafinil, through a potential behavioural and molecular association in the mouse. A conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was implemented to investigate the rewarding properties of modafinil. Whole genome expression and qRT-PCR analysis were performed on the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of modafinil-treated and control animals. Modafinil administration (65 mg/kg) induced an increase in locomotor activity, an increase in the change of preference for the drug paired side after a conditioning period as well as changes to gene expression profiles in the VTA (120 genes), NAC (23 genes) and PFC (19 genes). A molecular signature consisting of twelve up-regulated genes was identified as common to the three brain regions. Multiple linear correlation analysis showed a strong correlation (R2>0.70) between the behavioural and molecular endpoints in the three brain regions. We show that modafinil had a concomitant effect on CPP, locomotor activity, and up-regulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulated genes (Gbp2, Gbp3, Gbp10, Cd274, Igtp), while correlating the latter set of genes with behaviour changes evaluated through the CPP. A potential association can be proposed based on the dysregulation of p47 family genes and Gbp family of IFN-γ induced GTPases. In conclusion, these findings suggest a link between the behavioural and molecular events in the context of modafinil administration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

Balducci C.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Mehdawy B.,Irccs Neurological Institute C Mondino | Mare L.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Giuliani A.,University of Bologna | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2011

Abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) production and deposition is believed to represent one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). γ-Secretase is the enzymatic complex responsible for Aβ generation from its precursor protein. Inhibition or modulation of γ-secretase represents an attractive therapeutic approach. CHF5074 is a new γ-secretase modulator that has been shown to inhibit brain plaque deposition and to attenuate memory deficit in adult AD transgenic mice after chronic treatment. To date, it is not known whether the positive behavioral effects of this compound also occur in young transgenic mice without plaque deposition. Here, we evaluated the effects of acute and subchronic treatment with CHF5074 on contextual and recognition memory and on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in plaque-free Tg2576 mice. We found that at 5 months of age, contextual memory impairment was significantly attenuated after acute subcutaneous administration of 30 mg/kg CHF5074. At 6 months of age, recognition memory impairment was fully reversed after a 4-week oral treatment in the diet (≈60 mg/kg/day). These cognitive effects were associated with a reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment in the hippocampus. A significant reduction in brain intraneuronal AβPP/Aβ levels and hyperphosphorylated tau, but no change in soluble or oligomeric Aβ levels was detected in Tg2576 mice showing functional recovery following CHF5074 treatment. We conclude that the beneficial effects of CHF5074 treatment in young transgenic mice occurred at a stage that precedes plaque formation and were associated with a reduction in intraneuronal AβPP/Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau. © 2011 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Dardou D.,Free University of Colombia | Dardou D.,University of Auvergne | Monlezun S.,Free University of Colombia | Foerch P.,CNS Research | And 4 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2013

SV2C is an isoform of the synaptic vesicle 2 protein family that exhibits a particular pattern of brain expression with enriched expression in several basal ganglia nuclei. In the present study, we have investigated SV2C implication in both normal and pathological basal ganglia functioning with a peculiar attention to dopamine neuron containing regions. In SV2C-/- mice, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in midbrain dopaminergic neurons was largely and significantly increased and enkephalin mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus. The expression of SV2C was studied in two models of dopaminergic denervation (6-OHDA- and MPTP-induced lesions). In dopamine-depleted animals, SV2C mRNA expression was significant increased in the striatum. In order to further understand the role of SV2C, we performed behavioral experiments on SV2C-/- mice and on knock-down mice receiving an injection of adeno-associated virus expressing SV2C miRNA specifically in the ventral midbrain. These modifications of SV2C expression had little or no impact on behavior in open field and elevated plus maze. However, even if complete loss of SV2C had no impact on conditioned place preference induced by cocaine, the specific knock-down of SV2C expression in the dopaminergic neurons completely abolished the development of a CPP while the reaction to an acute drug injection remains similar in these mice compared to control mice. These results showed that SV2C, a poorly functionally characterized protein is strongly involved in normal operation of the basal ganglia network and could be also involved in system adaptation in basal ganglia pathological conditions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hauger R.L.,University of California at San Diego | Olivares-Reyes J.A.,CINVESTAV | Braun S.,University of California at San Diego | Hernandez-Aranda J.,CINVESTAV | And 7 more authors.
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2013

The primary goal was to determine agonist-specific regulation of CRF2(a) receptor function. Exposure of human retinoblastoma Y79 cells to selective (UCN2, UCN3 or stresscopins) and non-selective (UCN1 or sauvagine) agonists prominently desensitized CRF2(a) receptors in a rapid, concentration-dependent manner. A considerably slower rate and smaller magnitude of desensitization developed in response to the weak agonist CRF. CRF1 receptor desensitization stimulated by CRF, cortagine or stressin1-A had no effect on CRF2(a) receptor cyclic AMP signaling. Conversely, desensitization of CRF2(a) receptors by UCN2 or UCN3 did not cross-desensitize Gs-coupled CRF1 receptor signaling. In transfected HEK293 cells, activation of CRF2(a) receptors by UCN2, UCN3 or CRF resulted in receptor phosphorylation and internalization proportional to agonist potency. Neither protein kinase A nor casein kinases mediated CRF2(a) receptor phosphorylation or desensitization. Exposure of HEK293 or U2OS cells to UCN2 or UCN3 (100nM) produced strong βarrestin2 translocation and colocalization with membrane CRF2(a) receptors while CRF (1μM) generated only weak βarrestin2 recruitment. βarrestin2 did not internalize with the receptor, however, indicating that transient CRF2(a) receptor-arrestin complexes dissociate at or near the cell membrane. Since deletion of the βarrestin2 gene upregulated Gs-coupled CRF2(a) receptor signaling in MEF cells, a βarrestin2 mechanism restrains Gs-coupled CRF2(a) receptor signaling activated by urocortins. We further conclude that the rate and extent of homologous CRF2(a) receptor desensitization are governed by agonist-specific mechanisms affecting GRK phosphorylation, βarrestin2 recruitment, and internalization thereby producing unique signal transduction profiles that differentially affect the stress response. © 2013 .

Dardou D.,Free University of Colombia | Dassesse D.,CNS Research | Cuvelier L.,Free University of Colombia | Deprez T.,CNS Research | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Synaptic vesicle 2 proteins (SV2), SV2A, SV2B and SV2C, are integral proteins localized on the surface of synaptic vesicles in all neurons. SV2 proteins appear to play an important, but not yet fully understood role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, SV2 seems to be the receptor of the botulinum neurotoxin A. In the present study, using single and double-labeling fluorescent immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization we have identified the brain pattern of SV2C mRNA and protein expression in mice. Our results indicated that SV2C protein was expressed in a small subset of brain regions including the olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, ventral pallidum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. These results were confirmed by means of in situ hybridization, except for the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, in which no labeling was found, suggesting that SV2C-positive fibers in these areas are terminals of striatal projecting neurons. In the striatum, we found that, in addition to its presence in the projection neurons, SV2C was densely expressed in a fraction (around 45%) of cholinergic interneurons. In addition, our data also showed that SV2C was densely expressed in most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area (more than 70% of the dopaminergic neurons analyzed were SV2C-positive). Altogether, our results suggest that SV2C may contribute to the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia including cholinergic striatal interneurons and nigro-striatal/mesolimbic dopamine neurons. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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