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Bellow S.,University Paris - Sud | Latouche G.,University Paris - Sud | Brown S.C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Poutaraud A.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Cerovic Z.G.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Accurate localization of phytoalexins is a key for better understanding their role. This work aims to localize stilbenes, the main phytoalexins of grapevine. The cellular localization of stilbene fluorescence induced by Plasmopara viticola, the agent of downy mildew, was determined in grapevine leaves of very susceptible, susceptible, and partially resistant genotypes during infection. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and microspectrofluorimetry were used to acquire UV-excited autofluorescence three-dimensional images and spectra of grapevine leaves 5-6 days after inoculation. This noninvasive technique of investigation in vivo was completed with in vitro spectrofluorimetric studies on pure stilbenes as their fluorescence is largely affected by the physicochemical environment in various leaf compartments. Viscosity was the major physicochemical factor influencing stilbene fluorescence intensity, modifying fluorescence yield by more than two orders of magnitude. Striking differences in the localization of stilbene fluorescence induced by P. viticola were observed between the different genotypes. All inoculated genotypes displayed stilbene fluorescence in cell walls of guard cells and periclinal cell walls of epidermal cells. Higher fluorescence intensity was observed in guard-cell walls than in any other compartment due to increased local viscosity. In addition stilbene fluorescence was found in epidermal cell vacuoles of the susceptible genotype and in the infected spongy parenchyma of the partially resistant genotype. The very susceptible genotype was devoid of fluorescence both in the epidermal vacuoles and the mesophyll. This strongly suggests that the resistance of grapevine leaves to P. viticola is correlated with the pattern of localization of induced stilbenes in host tissues. © 2012 The Author.


Almeida R.P.P.,University of California at Berkeley | Daane K.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Bell V.A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Blaisdell G.K.,University of California at Berkeley | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is caused by a complex of vector-borne virus species in the family Closteroviridae. GLD is present in all grape-growing regions of the world, primarily affecting wine grape varieties. The disease has emerged in the last two decades as one of the major factors affecting grape fruit quality, leading to research efforts aimed at reducing its economic impact. Most research has focused on the pathogens themselves, such as improved detection protocols, with limited work directed toward disease ecology and the development of management practices. Here we discuss the ecology and management of GLD, focusing primarily on Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, the most important virus species within the complex. We contextualize research done on this system within an ecological framework that forms the backbone of the discussion regarding current and potential GLD management strategies. To reach this goal, we introduce various aspects of GLD biology and ecology, followed by disease management case studies from four different countries and continents (South Africa, New Zealand, California-USA, and France). We review ongoing regional efforts that serve as models for improved strategies to control this economically important and worldwide disease, highlighting scientific gaps that must be filled for the development of knowledge-based sustainable GLD management practices. © 2013 Almeida, Daane, Bell, Blaisdell, Cooper, Herrbach and Pietersen.


Bragard C.,Catholic University of Leuven | Caciagli P.,CNR Institute of Plant virology | Lemaire O.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Lopez-Moya J.J.,Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics | And 4 more authors.
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Most plant viruses rely on vector organisms for their plant-to-plant spread. Although there are many different natural vectors, few plant virus-vector systems have been well studied. This review describes our current understanding of virus transmission by aphids, thrips, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, treehoppers, mites, nematodes, and zoosporic endoparasites. Strategies for control of vectors by host resistance, chemicals, and integrated pest management are reviewed. Many gaps in the knowledge of the transmission mechanisms and a lack of available host resistance to vectors are evident. Advances in genome sequencing and molecular technologies will help to address these problems and will allow innovative control methods through interference with vector transmission. Improved knowledge of factors affecting pest and disease spread in different ecosystems for predictive modeling is also needed. Innovative control measures are urgently required because of the increased risks from vector-borne infections that arise from environmental change. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Oliver J.E.,Cornell University | Vigne E.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Fuchs M.,Cornell University
Virus Research | Year: 2010

To gain insights into the evolutionary mechanisms of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae, the sequences of the complete coding region of RNA2, including genes 2AHP, 2BMP and 2CCP, and partial sequence from the RNA1-encoded gene 1EPol of 14 GFLV isolates from three naturally infected California vineyards were characterized. Phylogenetic analyses suggested two to three evolutionarily divergent lineages that did not reflect the vineyard origin of the isolates or an association with rootstock genotype or scion cultivar. Examination of the genetic variability of the California isolates alongside isolates worldwide, for which three RNA1 and 44 RNA2 coding sequences are available, revealed similar patterns of molecular evolution for the different regions within the GFLV genome but distinct selection constraints with the strongest pressure exerted on genes 2CCP and 2BMP, an intermediate level of pressure exerted on gene 1EPol, and the weakest pressure exerted on gene 2AHP. Some of the California isolates resulted from interspecies recombination events between GFLV and Arabis mosaic virus with crossover sites suspected in gene 1EPol and identified in genes 2AHP and 2BMP; and intraspecies recombination events inferred in the four target genes but most frequently observed within gene 2CCP. This study suggested that purifying selection and recombination are important evolutionary mechanisms in the genetic diversification of GFLV. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Mestre P.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Piron M.-C.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Merdinoglu D.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality
Fungal Biology | Year: 2012

Grapevine downy mildew caused by the Oomycete Plasmopara viticola is one of the most important diseases affecting Vitis spp. The current strategy of control relies on chemical fungicides. An alternative to the use of fungicides is using downy mildew resistant varieties, which is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Knowledge about the genetic basis of the resistance to P. viticola has progressed in the recent years, but little data are available about P. viticola genetics, in particular concerning the nature of its avirulence genes. Identifying pathogen effectors as putative avirulence genes is a necessary step in order to understand the biology of the interaction. It is also important in order to select the most efficient combination of resistance genes in a strategy of pyramiding. On the basis of knowledge from other Oomycetes, P. viticola effectors can be identified by using a candidate gene strategy based on data mining of genomic resources. In this paper we describe the development of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from P. viticola by creating a cDNA library from in vitro germinated zoospores and the sequencing of 1543 clones. We present 563 putative nuclear P. viticola unigenes. Sequence analysis reveals 54 ESTs from putative secreted hydrolytic enzymes and effectors, showing the suitability of this material for the analysis of the P. viticola secretome and identification of effector genes. Next generation sequencing of cDNA from in vitro germinated zoospores should result in the identification of numerous candidate avirulence genes in the grapevine/downy mildew interaction. © 2012 The British Mycological Society.


Peressotti E.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality
BMC plant biology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Natural disease resistance is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of controlling plant disease. Breeding programmes need to make sure that the resistance deployed is effective and durable. Grapevine downy mildew, caused by the Oomycete Plasmopara viticola, affects viticulture and it is controlled with pesticides. Downy mildew resistant grapevine varieties are a promising strategy to control the disease, but their use is currently restricted to very limited acreages. The arising of resistance-breaking isolates under such restricted deployment of resistant varieties would provide valuable information to design breeding strategies for the deployment of resistance genes over large acreages whilst reducing the risks of the resistance being defeated. The observation of heavy downy mildew symptoms on a plant of the resistant variety Bianca, whose resistance is conferred by a major gene, provided us with a putative example of emergence of a resistance-breaking isolate in the interaction between grapevine and P. viticola. RESULTS: In this paper we describe the emergence of a P. viticola isolate (isolate SL) that specifically overcomes Rpv3, the major resistance gene carried by Bianca at chromosome 18. We show that isolate SL has the same behaviour as two P. viticola isolates avirulent on Bianca (isolates SC and SU) when inoculated on susceptible plants or on resistant plants carrying resistances derived from other sources, suggesting there is no fitness cost associated to the virulence. Molecular analysis shows that all three isolates are genetically closely related. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are the first description of a resistance-breaking isolate in the grapevine/P. viticola interaction, and show that, despite the reduced genetic variability of P. viticola in Europe compared to its basin of origin and the restricted use of natural resistance in European viticulture, resistance-breaking isolates overcoming monogenic resistances may arise even in cases where deployment of the resistant varieties is limited to small acreages. Our findings represent a warning call for the use of resistant varieties and an incentive to design breeding programmes aiming to optimize durability of the resistances.


Duchene E.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Butterlin G.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Dumas V.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Merdinoglu D.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

The genetic determinism of developmental stages in grapevine was studied in the progeny of a cross between grapevine cultivars Riesling and Gewurztraminer by combining ecophysiological modelling, genetic analysis and data mining of the grapevine whole genome sequence. The dates of three phenological stages, budbreak, flowering and veraison, were recorded during four successive years for 120 genotypes in the vineyard. The phenotypic data analysed were the duration of three periods expressed in thermal time (degree-days): 15 February to budbreak (Bud), budbreak to flowering (Flo) and flowering to veraison (Ver). Parental and consensus genetic maps were built using 153 microsatellite markers on 188 individuals. Six independent quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for the three phases. They were located on chromosomes 4 and 19 for Bud, chromosomes 7 and 14 for Flo and chromosomes 16 and 18 for Ver. Interactions were detected between loci and also between alleles at the same locus. Using the available grapevine whole-genome sequences, candidate genes underlying the QTLs were identified. VvFT, on chromosome 7, and a CONSTANS-like gene, on chromosome 14, were found to colocalise with the QTLs for flowering time. Genes related to the abscisic acid response and to sugar metabolism were detected within the confidence intervals of QTLs for veraison time. Their possible roles in the developmental process are discussed. These results raise new hypotheses for a better understanding of the physiological processes governing grapevine phenology and provide a framework for breeding new varieties adapted to the future predicted climatic conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Rouxel M.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Mestre P.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Comont G.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Lehman B.L.,Michigan State University | And 2 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Assortative mating resulting from host plant specialization has been proposed to facilitate rapid ecological divergence in biotrophic plant pathogens. Downy mildews, a major group of biotrophic oomycetes, are prime candidates for testing speciation by host plant specialization. Here, we combined a phylogenetic and morphological approach with cross-pathogenicity tests to investigate host plant specialization and host range expansion in grapevine downy mildew. This destructive disease is caused by Plasmopara viticola, an oomycete endemic to North America on wild species and cultivated grapevines. Multiple genealogies and sporangia morphology provide evidence that P. viticola is a complex of four cryptic species, each associated with different host plants. Cross-inoculation experiments showed complete host plant specialization on Parthenocissus quinquefolia and on Vitis riparia, whereas cryptic species found on V. aestivalis, V. labrusca and V. vinifera were revealed to be less specific. We reconstructed the recent host range expansion of P. viticola from wild to cultivated grapevines, and showed that it was accompanied by an increase in aggressiveness of the pathogen. This case study on grapevine downy mildew illustrates how biotrophic plant pathogens can diversify by host plant specialization and emerge in agrosystems by shifting to cultivated hosts. These results might have important implications for viticulture, including breeding for resistance and disease management. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.


Blasi P.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Blanc S.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Wiedemann-Merdinoglu S.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Prado E.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is one of the major threats to grapevine. All traditional cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are susceptible to downy mildew, the control of which requires regular application of fungicides. In contrast, many sources of resistance to P. viticola have been described in the Vitis wild species, among which is V. amurensis Rupr. (Vitaceae), a species originating from East Asia. A genetic linkage map of V. amurensis, based on 122 simple sequence repeat and 6 resistance gene analogue markers, was established using S1 progeny. This map covers 975 cM on 19 linkage groups, which represent 82% of the physical coverage of the V. vinifera reference genetic map. To measure the general level of resistance, the sporulation of P. viticola and the necrosis produced in response to infection, five quantitative and semi-quantitative parameters were scored 6 days post-inoculation on the S1 progeny. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis allowed us to identify on linkage group 14 a major QTL controlling the resistance to downy mildew found in V. amurensis, which explained up to 86.3% of the total phenotypic variance. This QTL was named 'Resistance to Plasmopara viticola 8' (Rpv8). © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Ochatt S.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Jacas L.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Patat-Ochatt E.M.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Djenanne S.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2013

Leaf explants from leaflets collected from either in vivo grown or in vitro grown seedlings of Medicago truncatula genotype R108-1 were co-cultivated with bacterial cells of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains EHA105 or C58pMP90. Each of these strains was carrying the pCambia 1390 plasmid harbouring a hygromycin resistance gene cassette. Explants were then incubated on a medium containing 10 mg/l hygromycin and 800 mg/l augmentin to suppress Agrobacterium growth, and subcultured 4-5 times every 2 weeks for the proliferation of calli. After 8-10 weeks, callusing explants were transferred to hormone-free medium with 10 mg/l hygromycin and 400 mg/l augmentin for shoot regeneration. After rooting, a total of about 300 putative transformants were grown into plantlets, transferred to soil, acclimatized, and then moved to the greenhouse. Of these, a total of 43 independent PCR positive primary transformants and their T1 and T2 progeny were subjected to flow cytometric analysis, to assessing their trueness-to-type, as well as to southern blot analysis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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