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Cornu J.Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cornu J.Y.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Schneider A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jezequel K.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Denaix L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Geoderma | Year: 2011

It is well established that the soil temperature impacts on the mobility of Cd in soil but the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality in this process is still unclear. During a 42-day period, soil solutions were sampled from a Cd-contaminated soil incubated at 10, 20 or 30°C. The quantity and the quality of DOM were monitored over time as well as the concentration and the speciation of dissolved Cd. The fraction of Cd complexed by ligands (f CdL) increased over time and with the rise in soil temperature and exhibited a significant correlation with the absorbance of DOM at 254nm. In contrast, the quantity of DOM did not much vary between soil solutions. These results suggest that, during incubation, the composition of DOM shifted to more aromatic compounds, assimilated to humic substances (HS), with higher Cd affinity. The kinetics of DOM aromatization and Cd complexation were described using thermal time. A first order model adequately fitted all the experimental data, suggesting that similar microbial processes responsible for the aromatization of DOM occurred at 10, 20 and 30°C. The fraction of Cd complexed by ligands was predicted by Visual MINTEQ using the solution properties measured at 140day-degrees and the specific UV-absorbance of DOM (SUVA) monitored over thermal time. SUVA values were used to adjust the reactivity ratio of DOM (R). The model predictions were highly correlated with the measured values but they overestimated f CdL. It is concluded that the aromaticity of DOM should be taken into account to predict the impact of soil temperature on the complexation of Cd in rewetted soils. The relation between SUVA values and the HS fraction of DOM still needs, however, to be worked out. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory, CNRS Nantes Laboratory of Planetology and Geodynamics, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and University Paris Est Creteil
Type: Review | Journal: World journal of microbiology & biotechnology | Year: 2017

Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, it can be toxic at low concentrations. Its beneficial effects are therefore only observed for a narrow range of concentrations. Anthropogenic activities such as fungicide spraying and mining have resulted in the Cu contamination of environmental compartments (soil, water and sediment) at levels sometimes exceeding the toxicity threshold. This review focuses on the bioremediation of copper-contaminated soils. The mechanisms by which microorganisms, and in particular bacteria, can mobilize or immobilize Cu in soils are described and the corresponding bioremediation strategies-of varying levels of maturity-are addressed: (i) bioleaching as a process for the ex situ recovery of Cu from Cu-bearing solids, (ii) bioimmobilization to limit the in situ leaching of Cu into groundwater and (iii) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction as an innovative process for in situ enhancement of Cu removal from soil. For each application, the specific conditions required to achieve the desired effect and the practical methods for control of the microbial processes were specified.


PubMed | CNRS Microbial Ecology, Montpellier University, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, CNRS Oenologie Research Unit and CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FEMS yeast research | Year: 2016

Considered as a sister species of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. uvarum is, to a lesser extent, an interesting species for fundamental and applied research studies. Despite its potential interest as a new gene pool for fermenting agents, the intraspecific molecular genetic diversity of this species is still poorly investigated. In this study, we report the use of nine microsatellite markers to describe S. uvarum genetic diversity and population structure among 108 isolates from various geographical and substrate origins (wine, cider and natural sources). Our combined microsatellite markers set allowed differentiating 89 genotypes. In contrast to S. cerevisiae genetic diversity, wild and human origin isolates were intertwined. A total of 75% of strains were proven to be homozygotes and estimated heterozygosity suggests a selfing rate above 0.95 for the different population tested here. From this point of view, the S. uvarum life cycle appears to be more closely related to S. paradoxus or S. cerevisiae of natural resources than S. cerevisiae wine isolates. Population structure could not be correlated to distinct geographic or technological origins, suggesting lower differentiation that may result from a large exchange between human and natural populations mediated by insects or human activities.


Bois P.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Huguenot D.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Norini M.-P.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Haque M.F.U.,University of Strasbourg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2011

Purpose: The use of stormwater basins as constructed wetlands for the bioremediation of agricultural runoff waters contaminated with pesticides has great potential. The structure and dynamics of the bacterial community in such system, and its function with respect to contaminant removal, remain to be investigated in detail. Materials and methods: The bacterial component of sediment collected from a vineyard stormwater basin (in Rouffach, France) that pooled incoming runoff water containing pesticide and copper, was investigated by enumeration of cultivable bacteria on sediment extract solid medium and by liquid enrichment cultures from sediment, in the presence of glyphosate, diuron, 3,4-dichloroaniline and copper. Its structure, as a function of sediment location, depth, rhizospheric status and the presence of contaminants, was studied by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis. Cultures obtained by enrichment were screened by RISA and RFLP and the ability of different cultures for contaminant mitigation was evaluated by the chrome azurol S method (copper complexation) and HPLC (glyphosate, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline degradation). The composition of the mixed cultures with the highest potential with regard to degradation of glyphosate, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline and copper complexation were evaluated by sequence analysis of cloned PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from enrichment cultures. Results and discussion: The bacterial community structure of sediment showed differences depending on sampling location, sediment depth and sampling date. Spiking with a cocktail of concentrated glyphosate, diuron, 3,4-dichloroaniline and copper altered the bacterial community structure, but rhizospheric samples were less affected. RISA and RFLP analysis differentiated 98 distinct cultures, 28 of which were able to complex copper, and three, 35 and seven were able to degrade glyphosate, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline, respectively. Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from faster-growing rhizospheric mixed culture 106, selected as the most efficient in complexing copper and degrading glyphosate, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline, showed that it consisted of Arthrobacter sp., Pseudomonas putida, Delftia acidovorans and Brevundimonas sp. strains. Conclusions: The investigated stormwater basin contains bacterial populations specifically adapted to the transformation of diuron, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and glyphosate, and to copper complexation. The mixed culture 106 complexed high amounts of copper ions and degraded glyphosate and diuron without accumulation of the major diuron metabolite 3,4-DCA. Our results also suggest that plants may help to stabilise bacterial-driven pesticide mitigation in environments subject to variable conditions such as stormwater basins. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Bois P.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Bois P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Huguenot D.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Huguenot D.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

Non-point source pollution as a result of wine-growing activity is of high concern. Stormwater basins (SWB) found downstream of vineyard watersheds could show a potential for the mitigation of runoff water containing herbicides. In this study, mitigation of vinery-used herbicides was studied in microcosms with a very similar functioning to that recorded in SWB. Mitigation efficiency of glyphosate, diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) was investigated by taking into account hydraulic flow rate, mitigation duration, bioaugmentation and plant addition. Mitigation efficiency measured in water ranged from 63.0% for diuron to 84.2% for 3,4-DCA and to 99.8% for glyphosate. Water-storage duration in the SWB and time between water supplies were shown to be the most influential factors on the mitigation efficiency. Six hours water-storage duration allowed an efficient sorption of herbicides and their degradation by indigenous microorganisms in 5 weeks. Neither bioaugmentation nor plant addition had a significant effect on herbicide mitigation. Our results show that this type of SWB are potentially relevant for the mitigation of these herbicides stemming from wine-growing activity, providing a long enough hydraulic retention time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bertsch C.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Ramirez-Suero M.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Magnin-Robert M.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Larignon P.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du | And 5 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

This review presents an overview of eutypa dieback, esca and botryosphaeria dieback, the predominant grapevine trunk diseases worldwide. It covers their symptomatologies in the trunk, leaves and berries; the characteristics of the different fungal species associated with them; and host-pathogen interactions. Here, the host-pathogen relationship is defined at the cytological, physiological and molecular levels. Currently available experimental tools for studying these diseases, both in vitro and in the field, are discussed. Finally, a progress report on their control, which, since the ban of sodium arsenite, comprises chemical, biological and/or sanitation methods, is presented. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2012 BSPP.


Kuntzmann P.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Ifv | Villaume S.,Conseil Interprofessionnel des Vins dAlsace | Larignon P.,Institute Francais Of La Vigne Et Du Vin Ifv | Bertsch C.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2010

The French vineyard is affected by three principal wood diseases: Eutypa dieback, esca and black dead arm (BDA). Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeocremonium aleophilum, Eutypa lata, Fomitiporia mediterranea, Diplodia seriata, Diplodia mutila and Neofusicoccum parvum are the main fungi isolated in France and associated with grapevine trunk diseases. The aim of this study was to highlight the type of wood lesions and the fungus present in the Alsace vineyards (France) and to compare it with those identified in the other french vine-growing regions or with the German vineyards. Therefore, we have studied two vineyards with two different grapevine varieties ('Auxerrois', 'Gewürztraminer'). The foliar symptoms showed that the plots planted with 'Auxerrois' and 'Gewürztraminer' varieties had respectively 12 and 21 % grapevines with symptoms in 2005. Different cross sections were made on trunks and arms of 55 vines showing foliar symptoms, totalizing 162 microbiological isolations. Visual characterisations of the different lesions were described. The isolations made from the different necrosis showed the presence of species of fungi involved in grapevine trunk diseases and other fungi. Microbiological observations showed that for the Auxerrois vineyard the majority of the vines were infected with D. seriata, P. chlamydospora, E. lata and F. mediterranea. In the Gewürztraminer vineyard, the fungus most frequently isolated was P. chlamydospora, followed by D. seriata. The presence of D. seriata in different parts of the grapevine wood and in young wood is related to the severe damages observed on the vegetation.


Szakiel A.,University of Warsaw | Paczkowski C.,University of Warsaw | Pensec F.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Bertsch C.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed. © 2012 The Author(s).


Huguenot D.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Bois P.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Cornu J.Y.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Jezequel K.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

The use of plants and microorganisms to mitigate sediment contaminated by copper was studied in microcosms that mimic the functioning of a stormwater basin (SWB) connected to vineyard watershed. The impact of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria on the fate of Cu was studied in two contrasted (batch vs. semi-continuous) hydraulic regimes. The fate of copper was characterised following its discharge at the outlet of the microcosms, its pore water concentration in the sediment, the assessment of its bioaccessible fraction in the rhizosphere and the measurement of its content in plant tissues. Physico-chemical (pH, redox potential) and biological parameters (total heterotrophic bacteria) were also monitored. As expected, the results showed a clear impact of the hydraulic regime on the redox potential and thus on the pore water concentration of Cu. Copper in pore water was also dependent on the frequency of Cu-polluted water discharges. Repeated bioaugmentation increased the total heterotrophic microflora as well as the Cu bioaccessibility in the rhizosphere and increased the amount of Cu extracted by Phragmites australis by a factor of ~2. Sugar beet pulp, used as a filter to avoid copper flushing, retained 20% of outcoming Cu and led to an overall retention of Cu higher than 94% when arranged at the outlet of microcosms. Bioaugmentation clearly improved the phytoextraction rate of Cu in a small-scaled SWB designed to mimic the functioning of a full-size SWB connected to vineyard watershed. Highlights: Cu phytoextraction in constructed wetlands much depends on the hydraulic regime and on the frequency of Cu-polluted water discharges. Cu phytoextraction increases with time and plant density. Cu bioaccessibility can be increased by bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria.


Deglene-Benbrahim L.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Wiedemann-Merdinoglu S.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Merdinoglu D.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Walter B.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2010

Genetic improvement of grapevine for resistance against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) by biotechnological techniques requires reliable procedures to screen large populations of plants. In comparison with greenhouse-grown plants, in vitro plantlets are not often used in screening procedures, although they present some advantages such as compact size, the availability of a high number of replicates per genotype, and the potential to screen improved genotypes directly from in vitro plants. Leaf disc inoculation bioassay was used to evaluate grapevine resistance to downy mildew on Vitis vinifera Chardonnay, hybrid Seyval, and Vitis riparia Gloire de Montpellier (susceptible, moderately susceptible, and highly resistant, respectively) with both in vitro plantlets and greenhouse-grown plants. Disease symptoms and resistance reaction were evaluated for sporula-tion and necrosis in two independent experiments. For all parameters, leaves from in vitro plantlets appeared more resistant than leaves from greenhouse-grown plants, in particular for the intermediate and the susceptible genotypes. Necroses were not observed on leaf discs of the susceptible genotype, whereas necrotic spots appeared on leaf discs of both intermediate and resistant genotypes regardless of how the plants were grown. Based on sporulation and necrosis symptoms, ranking of genotypes differed according to growing conditions. Although the method based on in vitro grown plants is less reliable than that based on greenhouse plants, it can be used as a preliminary assay to eliminate the most susceptible plantlets obtained by biotechnology. © 2010 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.

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