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Vilain G.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Garnier J.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Tallec G.,IRSTEA | Cellier P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2010

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils are known to be variable in both space and time. To better understand this variability, this study was conducted to (i) evaluate the landscape-scale patterns and seasonal variations in N2O emissions, (ii) determine the contribution of the different environmental factors (texture and organic matter content of the soil, crop management, mineral nitrogen content, and fertilizer application) on the estimation of N2O emissions at the field scale. We used static chamber and gas chromatography methods to measure N2O emissions in the Orgeval sub-basin (Seine Basin, France), in representative sites selected on the basis of land use: a continuum from an agricultural plateau to the riparian buffer, grassland and a forest site. A consistent landscape-scale pattern of N2O emissions was observed with higher emissions in the footslope (annual flux of 4.0±2.2kgNha-1yr-1) than in the slope positions (1.1±0.6 and 1.9±1.2kgNha-1yr-1) or the shoulder positions (1.1±0.5kgNha-1yr-1). Nitrous oxide emissions from the riparian buffer were significant with an annual budget of 0.5±0.4kgNha-1yr-1, while extrapolated emissions from forest and grassland were 0.6±0.2kgNha-1yr-1 and 0.7±0.2kgNha-1yr-1, respectively. Topography plays a role mainly in its relation with hydrological processes which, in turn, regulate the soil factors (mainly water-filled pore space) controlling N2O emissions at the microscale level. The seasonal fluctuations of N2O emissions were influenced by precipitations (pulses after large rainfall events following fertilization) and thawing. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Boe J.,European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation | Habets F.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

In this article, multi-decadal variations in the French hydroclimate are investigated, with a specific focus on river flows. Based on long observed series, it is shown that river flows in France generally exhibit large multi-decadal variations in the instrumental period (defined in this study as the period from the late 19th century to the present), especially in spring. Differences of means between 21â€̄yr periods of the 20th century as large as 40% are indeed found for many gauging stations. Multi-decadal spring river flow variations are associated with variations in spring precipitation and temperature. These multi-decadal variations in precipitation are themselves found to be driven by large-scale atmospheric circulation, more precisely by a multi-decadal oscillation in a sea level pressure dipole between western Europe and the eastern Atlantic. It is suggested that the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, the main mode of multi-decadal variability in the North Atlantic-Europe sector, controls those variations in large-scale circulation and is therefore the main ultimate driver of multi-decadal variations in spring river flows. Potential multi-decadal variations in river flows in other seasons, and in particular summer, are also noted. As they are not associated with significant surface climate anomalies (i.e. temperature, precipitation) in summer, other mechanisms are investigated based on hydrological simulations. The impact of climate variations in spring on summer soil moisture, and the impact of soil moisture in summer on the runoff-to-precipitation ratio, could potentially play a role in multi-decadal summer river flow variations. The large amplitude of the multi-decadal variations in French river flows suggests that internal variability may play a very important role in the evolution of river flows during the next decades, potentially temporarily limiting, reversing or seriously aggravating the long-term impacts of anthropogenic climate change.©Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Garnier J.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Beusen A.,Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency | Thieu V.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Billen G.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | And 2 more authors.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2010

The Indicator for Coastal Eutrophication Potential (ICEP) for river nutrient export of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica at the global scale was first calculated from available measurement data. Positive values of ICEP indicate an excess of nitrogen and phosphorus over silica and generally coincide with eutrophication. The sign of ICEP based on measured nutrient fluxes was in good agreement with the corresponding one calculated from the Global-NEWS models for more than 5000 watersheds in the world. Calculated ICEP for the year 2050 based on Global NEWS data for the four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios show increasing values particularly in developing countries. For further evaluation of the ICEP at the outlet of the rivers of the world based on measurements, there is a need for additional determination silica fluxes and concentrations, which are scarcely documented. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Oudin L.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Kay A.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Andraassian V.,IRSTEA | Perrin C.,IRSTEA
Water Resources Research | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the notion of similarity often used in the regionalization studies of hydrological models. We compare two different visions of similarity: the apparent similarity defined on the basis of observable catchment properties, and behavioral similarity judged through the use of hydrological models. These two visions are generally assumed to be merged in regionalization studies: Catchments having apparently similar physical characteristics are assumed to have a similar hydrological behavior. In this paper, we wished to test the validity of this assumption. To this aim, we defined behavioral (hydrological) similarity on the basis of model parameter transferability. Then pools of hydrologically similar catchments are compared with pools of apparently physically similar catchments, as identified on the basis of physiographic catchment descriptors. The overlap between the two pools of similar catchments is analyzed, making it possible to judge the efficiency of the physical similarity measure and to identify hydrologically similar catchments in an ungauged context. The results show that the overlap between the two pools is significant for only 60% of the catchments. For the other catchments, two major reasons were identified as contributing to the lack of overlap: (1) these catchments often have a quite specific hydrological behavior and (2) the role of the underground properties of the catchment on its hydrological behavior was not found to be accurately described by the available physical descriptors, meaning that more relevant catchment descriptors should be sought to better describe the geological and lithological context in hydrological terms. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Thieu V.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Mayorga E.,University of Washington | Billen G.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Garnier J.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2010

In an attempt to downscale the global prospective scenarios established by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to the level of three individual watersheds (the Seine, Somme, and Scheldt rivers), we examined the application of the regional RIVERSTRAHLER model, based on a mechanistic representation of in-stream processes, in tandem with the semiempirical Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) model, by downscaling the input data of the latter into information required by the former. Overall, the model simulates the major trends of the changes that occurred in 1970-2000, although with some discrepancies revealing the weakness of certain hypothesis in the global approach. For the future, the prediction is a significant decrease in total nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes into the sea compared to those of 2000. We showed the benefits of combining a process-based approach of nutrient transfer at the local scale with the use of global-scale models for integrating the development of socioeconomic driving forces acting at the global level. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Galibert P.-Y.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils
Geophysical Prospecting | Year: 2016

The hydrodynamic characterization of the epikarst, the shallow part of the unsaturated zone in karstic systems, has always been challenging for geophysical methods. This work investigates the feasibility of coupling time-lapse refraction seismic data with petrophysical and hydrologic models for the quantitative determination of water storage and residence time at shallow depth in carbonate rocks. The Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model describing the seismic velocity variations with water saturation at low frequencies needs to be modified for this lithology. I propose to include a saturation-dependent rock-frame weakening to take into account water-rock interactions. A Bayesian inversion workflow is presented to estimate the water content from seismic velocities measured at variable saturations. The procedure is tested first with already published laboratory measurements on core samples, and the results show that it is possible to estimate the water content and its uncertainty. The validated procedure is then applied to a time-lapse seismic study to locate and quantify seasonal water storage at shallow depth along a seismic profile. The residence time of the water in the shallow layers is estimated by coupling the time-lapse seismic measurements with rainfall chronicles, simple flow equations, and the petrophysical model. The daily water input computed from the chronicles is used to constraint the inversion of seismic velocities for the daily saturation state and the hydrodynamic parameters of the flow model. The workflow is applied to a real monitoring case, and the results show that the average residence time of the water in the epikarst is generally around three months, but it is only 18 days near an infiltration pathway. During the winter season, the residence times are three times shorter in response to the increase in the effective rainfall. © 2016 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Thieu V.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Garnier J.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Billen G.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

The Seine, Somme, and Scheldt Rivers (France, Belgium, and Netherlands) are the major delivering rivers flowing into the continental coastal zone of the Southern Bight of the North Sea, an area regularly affected by eutrophication problems. In the present work, the Seneque-Riverstrahler model was implemented in a multi-regional case study in order to test several planned mitigation measures aimed at limiting stream nutrient contamination and restoring balanced nutrient ratios at the coastal zone. This modeling approach, which is spatially distributed at the basin scale, allows assessing the impact of any change in human activities, which widely differ over the three basins. Here, we define realistic scenarios based on currently proposed measures to reduce point and non-point sources, such as the upgrading of wastewater treatment, the introduction of catch crops, and the development of extensive farming. An analysis of the current situation showed that a 47-72% reduction in P point-source emissions within the three basins could be reached if the intended P treatment was generalized to the largest treatment plants. However, only an overall 14-23% reduction in N could be achieved at the outlet of the three basins, by combining improved wastewater treatment and land use with management measures aimed at regulating agricultural practices. Nonetheless, in spite of these efforts, N will still be exported in large excess with respect to the equilibrium defined by the Redfield ratios, even in the most optimistic hypothesis describing the long-term response of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A comprehensive assessment of these mitigation measures supports the need for additional reductions of nutrient losses from agriculture to control harmful algae development. It also stresses the relevance of this mechanistic approach, in which nutrient transfers from land to sea can be calculated, as an integrated strategy to test policy recommendations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Brigode P.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Oudin L.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Perrin C.,IRSTEA
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the uncertainty of hydrological predictions due to rainfall-runoff model parameters in the context of climate change impact studies. Two sources of uncertainty were considered: (i) the dependence of the optimal parameter set on the climate characteristics of the calibration period and (ii) the use of several posterior parameter sets over a given calibration period. The first source of uncertainty often refers to the lack of model robustness, while the second one refers to parameter uncertainty estimation based on Bayesian inference. Two rainfall-runoff models were tested on 89 catchments in northern and central France. The two sources of uncertainty were assessed in the past observed period and in future climate conditions. The results show that, given the evaluation approach followed here, the lack of robustness was the major source of variability in streamflow projections in future climate conditions for the two models tested. The hydrological projections generated by an ensemble of posterior parameter sets are close to those associated with the optimal set. Therefore, it seems that greater effort should be invested in improving the robustness of models for climate change impact studies, especially by developing more suitable model structures and proposing calibration procedures that increase their robustness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Vergnes J.-P.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils | Decharme B.,Meteo - France | Habets F.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2014

This paper presents a simple method for representing upward capillary fluxes from shallow groundwater into the unsaturated soil column of the large-scale hydrological models generally used at low resolution in global climate models. The groundwater scheme implemented in the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways river-routing model in a previous study is coupled with the Interaction between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model. In this coupling, the simulated water table depth acts as the lower boundary condition for the soil moisture diffusive equation. An original parameterization accounting for the subgrid topography inside each grid cell is proposed in order to compute this fully coupled soil lower boundary condition. The impact of this coupling on the simulated water budget is evaluated over France for the 1989-2009 period. Simulations are performed at high (1/12 °) and low (0.5 °) resolutions. Upward capillary fluxes induce a decrease in the simulated recharge from ISBA to the aquifers and contributes to an enhancement of the soil moisture memory. The simulated water table depths are then lowered, which induces a slight decrease in the simulated mean annual river discharges. These differences do not affect the comparison with observations. As a consequence, the simulated river discharges and water table heads compare still well with observations for the two soil bottom condition (free drain or fully coupled). It confirms the suitability of the coupling parameterization using subgrid spatial variability of topography. Compared to a free drain experiment, upward capillary fluxes at the bottom of the soil increase the mean annual evapotranspiration simulated over the aquifer domain by 3.12% and 1.54% at high and low resolutions, respectively. This increase can locally reach 50% and 30%, respectively. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Maineult A.,CNRS Transfers and Interactions in Hydrosystems and Soils
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2016

Corroding casings of wells generate negative self-potential (SP) anomalies, increasing from about -. 10 to -. 500 mV in the vicinity of the well to 0 mV at large distances. As reported in previous laboratory experiment, SP can be used to retrieve the distribution of electrical potential along the casing, which is somehow a proxy for the corrosion state of the casing. These studies used 3D (whole space) or surface 2D (whole surface) measurements of SP distribution; here we reported a field example, for which only a 1D surface SP profile is available. In order to retrieve the most probable associated potential distribution (defined by a spline) along the 11.1-m long metallic casing, we develop a direct model based on geometrical and geoelectrical properties of the medium, which was then used in a (non-deterministic) optimization procedure by simulated annealing, including some physical constrains. Tests carried out on a synthetic case allowed the initial source to be correctly retrieved, provided that the number of nodes used for the spline defining the potential distribution along the casing is large enough. The inversion of real field data provided a dipolar anomaly, with minimal negative amplitude of around -. 600 mV at 5 m, and maximal positive amplitude of about 1100 mV at 9 m (close to the level of the water table), this shape being in agreement with the results of previous laboratory studies. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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