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Buyck B.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Cryptogamie, Mycologie | Year: 2014

This paper explores the interesting diversity within the group of "smooth chanterelles" and introduces several new taxa from the tropics: C. sublaevis Buyck & Eyssart. and C. cibarioides (Heinem.) Buyck comb. nov. from Africa, C. eccentricus Buyck & V. Hofstetter and C. neocaledonicus Buyck, V. Hofstetter, Eyssart. & Ducousso from New Caledonia and C. incrassatus Buyck & V. Hofstetter from Malaysia. © 2014 Adac. Tous droits réservés. Source


Buyck B.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Cryptogamie, Mycologie | Year: 2012

Cantharellus addaiensis is redescribed, illustrated and neotypified. Epitypes are introduced for C. platyphyllus, C. symoensii, C. splendens and C. heinemanniamis. © 2012 Adac. Source


Dubois A.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

Taxonomy is currently facing a major crisis and is likely to have strong difficulties to reduce significantly the taxonomic gap before the biodiversity crisis has wiped out a large proportion of the living species of the earth. In this context, taxonomists should pay great attention to the nomenclatural Rules, and care for them to help them in this urgent task, rather than diverting their time and energy to secondary or useless questions or debates. A major purpose of the Code is to promote nomenclatural stability in zoology. This requires stability in the Rules, or at least that a great care be taken, when establishing new Rules, to avoid that they can have unexpected deleterious consequences for stability. In particular, in most cases, it is crucial to deny retroactivity to the new Rules. Several examples of problems created in zoological nomenclature by introduction of changes in Articles dealing with the spellings of nomina are examined in detail. These Articles were modified, with retroactive value, in the 1985 edition (Art. 32, 33, 35 and 39) and in the 1999 edition (Art. 24) of the Code. It is shown that these changes, which have no clear "philosophical" or practical justifications and which result in no clear benefits, have in fact had negative impacts on nomenclatural practice. Their implementation requires heavy useless additional work from taxonomists and has negative results in nomenclatural stability that had clearly not been anticipated by the ICZN when promulgating them. In a few sets of nomina tested below, the changes in the 1985 edition resulted in spelling changes for 10.0 to 22.2 % of the nomina, and those in the 1999 edition for 21.7 to 33.3 % of the nomina, roughly a quarter of them on the whole (24.5 %). Among others that are less emblematic, a striking case is that of the fish generic nomen Tetraodon, widely used especially since the genome of a species of this genus has been sequenced, and which should be changed to Tetrodon because of the unwarranted introduction of the new Art. 24.2.4 into the Code. It is suggested that these changes should be cancelled, or at least denied retroactivity from the years of their promulgations. In order to make this discussion easier, a "taxonomy" of the different kinds of spellings of nomina, and a dichotomic key to such situations, are provided. This stresses the fact that detailed discussions on very precise aspects of the functioning of nomenclatural Rules, as well as the computerization of nomenclatural data for online databases, require to use a specialized technical terminology to designate the nomenclatural concepts and tools, not vague "common language" terms like "name" or "type": "keep the Rules, but change the terms". The problems outlined here should be kept in mind by the ICZN before implementing drastic changes in the Rules of nomenclatural availability, as recently suggested.© 2010 Magnolia Press. Source


Desutter-Grandcolas L.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Zoosystema | Year: 2012

The long-legged crickets (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae Blanchard, 1845) collected during the SANTO 2006 Global Biodiversity Survey are studied. Three genera (four species) are represented in the material at hand: three troglobitic species (Megacris lipsae n. gen., n. sp., Parendacustes sp. 1, Parendacustes sp. 2) and one epigean species (Brevizacla molisae n. sp.) widespread in Santo rainforests. The species are defined by their morphology and male and female genitalia, and their habitats documented. These taxa are briefly compared to New Caledonian Phalangopsidae. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Source


Klingenberg C.P.,University of Manchester | Gidaszewski N.A.,University of Manchester | Gidaszewski N.A.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Systematic Biology | Year: 2010

The relationship between morphometrics and phylogenetic analysis has long been controversial. Here we propose an approach that is based on mapping morphometric traits onto phylogenies derived from other data and thus avoids the pitfalls encountered by previous studies. This method treats shape as a single, multidimensional character. We propose a test for the presence of a phylogenetic signal in morphometric data, which simulates the null hypothesis of the complete absence of phylogenetic structure by permutation of the shape data among the terminal taxa. We also propose 2 measures of the fit of morphometric data to the phylogeny that are direct extensions of the consistency index and retention index used in traditional cladistics. We apply these methods to a small study of the evolution of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, for which a very strongly supported phylogeny is available. This case study reveals a significant phylogenetic signal and a relatively low degree of homoplasy. Despite the low homoplasy, the shortest tree computed from landmark data on wing shape is inconsistent with the well-supported phylogenetic tree from molecular data, underscoring that morphometric data may not provide reliable information for inferring phylogeny. Source

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