CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory

Marseille, France

CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory

Marseille, France
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Duez D.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Jankowski L.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Purson A.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Viallet F.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Viallet F.,Center Hospitalier dAix en Provence
Journal of Neurolinguistics | Year: 2012

The main goal of the present study was to examine the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) and bilateral STN stimulation on prosodic aspects of speech. This was accomplished by comparing temporal variables and F 0 in the speech produced by ten patients in the " Off" and " On" conditions and ten healthy controls. Several tendencies emerged. Concerning temporal variables, there was no significant impact on articulation rate, pause ratio and pause time in the stim-off group. Furthermore, there was a strong congruence between pause pattern and syntactic structure which suggests that the syntactic function of prosody is preserved in PD speech. In contrast, the analysis of F 0 revealed significant differences between controls and stim-off patients. Concerning bilateral STN stimulation, there were no group differences with respect to temporal variables and F 0 values; however, closer examination of the data revealed individual differences in articulation rate, F 0 mean, ranges and maxima. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Strijkers K.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Costa A.,University Pompeu Fabra | Costa A.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Language, Cognition and Neuroscience | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Obtaining a neurophysiology of language production is a complex endeavour which, at present, is in its “infancy”. It will require the integration of long-standing psycholinguistic models and phenomena with the anatomical and dynamical constraints of neural coding. In our target article [Strijkers, K., & Costa, A. (2016). The cortical dynamics of speaking: Present shortcomings and future avenues. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 1–20. doi:10.1080/23273798.2015.1120878; henceforth S&C], we hypothesized that one promising way of doing so is by perceiving words as cortical assemblies in a proactive brain. Conceptualizing word production as such means that some of the traditional assumptions underlying psycholinguistic models will need to be re-assessed (or at least extended) in light of this novel perspective. However, it does not mean that it is the only conceivable way to integrate language and the brain nor that neuroscience should be prioritized over psycholinguistics. Rather, its importance lies in making the linking hypothesizes between linguistic function and neural code explicit so that we can empirically test the integration of both domains. Likely, some of the linking hypotheses proposed in S&C may be proven wrong, but more importantly, others may prove to be an advance in the right direction towards a mechanistic framework of the cortical dynamics of speaking. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

PubMed | IFSTTAR and CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2016

The aim of this research was to study drivers performances and divided attention depending on their initial training. The performances of young novice drivers who received early training, traditionally trained drivers and more experienced drivers were compared during a dual task consisting of a simulated car-following task and a number parity judgment task. It was expected that, due to their limited driving experience, the young novice drivers would have more difficulty in adequately distributing their attention between the two tasks. Poorer performances by novice drivers than experienced drivers were therefore expected. The results indicate that traditionally trained drivers had more difficulties in speed regulation and maintaining their position in the lane than drivers with early training and experienced drivers. Performance impairment linked to driving inexperience was also found in the secondary task. The results were interpreted regarding the attentional resources involved in driving with a secondary task and supported the positive effects of French early training.

Moreau C.,University of Lille Nord de France | Pennel-Ployart O.,University of Lille Nord de France | Pinto S.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Plachez A.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 5 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

Background: Parkinsonian dysarthria (as typically characterized by hypophonia, monotony of pitch, and rhythm abnormalities) is often accompanied by gait disturbances. The long-term effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) on dysarthria remains unclear. Methods: Given STN DBS's known improvement of gait disorders, we analyzed speech intelligibility and aerodynamic and acoustic parameters in 11 advanced PD patients in three double-blind, randomized conditions: "defined Off," 60 Hz STN DBS and 130 Hz STN DBS. Results: An improvement in aerodynamic speech parameters during 60 Hz STN DBS was accompanied by significant clinical benefit. Conclusions: Chronic treatment with low-frequency STN DBS may have a beneficial impact on dysarthropneumophonia, even in advanced PD patients. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

Koustanai A.,INRETS | Van Elslande P.,INRETS | Bastien C.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2012

Drivers have to focus their attention on a danger to become aware of it. Change blindness paradigms are therefore relevant to studying the ability to detect danger. However, research has not yet focused on the role of two essential factors in guiding drivers' attention: driving experience and the specific needs for performing a manoeuvre. Based on a previous analysis of real accident situations, we used a one-shot paradigm with static scenes to test observers' ability to detect various changes as a function of their driving experience, the manoeuvre envisaged and the environmental context. The results showed that change detection depends greatly on driving experience when planning to cross a junction or to turn left, while it depends more on the environmental setting and task complexity when seeking a direction. The results were not conclusive, however, in explaining how drivers failed to notice that the vehicle ahead of them was turning when they considered an overtaking manoeuvre. We discuss the contributions of our research in relation to the possibilities of using change blindness as a measurement tool in studies on automobile driving. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fezza N.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Auran C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Speech Prosody, SP 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper fits into a tradition of prosodic analyses of discourse in French, but it proposes among the first multilayer multi-parametric descriptions. The study presented here is based on the analysis of a corpus of narrations from the comic strip Titeuf by six French natives. Discourse annotation was carried out, and pitch, intensity, duration and spectral parameters were automatically extracted from the recordings at different levels of the linguistic structure. Our results confirm and further illustrate previous studies on the prosodic marking of discourse structure in general, particularly concerning pitch reset at the beginning of new topics; but we also provide new elements regarding the discursive roles of intensity and speech rate, which somewhat challenge previous work in the field, and favour less strictly hierarchical models of discourse structure.

Niebuhr O.,University of Kiel | Meunier C.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory
Phonetica | Year: 2011

While assimilation was initially regarded as a categorical replacement of phonemes or phonological features, subsequent detailed phonetic analyses showed that assimilation actually generates a wide spectrum of intermediate forms in terms of speech timing and spectrum. However, the focus of these analyses predominantly remained on the assimilated speech sound. In the present study we go one step ahead in two ways. First, we look at acoustic phonetic detail that differs in the French vowels /i, a, u/ preceding single /s/ and /∫/ sibilants as well as /s#∫/ and /∫#s/ sibilant sequences. Second, our vowel measurements include not only F1 and F2 frequencies, but also traditional prosodic parameters like duration, intensity and voice quality. The vowels and sibilants were recorded as the central part of CVC#CVC pseudo-names in a contextualized read-speech paradigm. In the single-sibilant conditions we found that the vowels preceding /∫/ were longer, breathier, less intense, and had more cardinal F2 values than before /s/. For the /s#∫/ and /∫#s/ conditions we found regressive and progressive /s/-to-[∫] assimilation that was complete in terms of spectral centre-of-gravity measurements, although French is said to have only voice assimilation. Moreover, the vowels preceding the /s#∫/ sequences still bear an imprint of /s/ despite the assimilation towards [∫∫]. We discuss the implications of these findings for the time window and the completeness of assimilation as well as for the basic units in speech communication. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Bertrand R.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Priego-Valverde B.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory
Pragmatics and Cognition | Year: 2011

In this paper we use Conversation Analysis (CA) to investigate conversational humor in talk-in-interaction. We attempt to better understand how the latter is produced and co-constructed by participants in accounting for the devices used by participants in their sequential environment. The framework of CA enables us to take into account the various means available to speakers to communicate, orient to the others, etc. From our data, reported speech, confirmation request/ answer, and repetitions appear as the main discursive devices to create humor (presented as the result of the appearance of the incongruity). We focused on prosodic cues that are strongly involved in these devices and then contribute to the humorous tonality of the talk. Finally, the co-construction of conversational humor is mainly described through the notion of orientation and prosodic orientation. © John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Reitz A.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Levrat E.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory | Petin J.-F.,CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory
Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Beyond the Horizon - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2013 | Year: 2014

Radiotherapy is a complex process, relying on different human skills and highly technical devices, which consist in exposing tumors to ionizing rays. Radiotherapy is composed of sessions which are repeated 3 to 5 times a week during several weeks. A recent study of WHO concerning risks in radiotherapy points out that only half of all incidents declared since 30 years are due to technical causes, the other half being due to human and organizational causes. To improve patient safety, our proposal considers these three dimensions (technical, human and organizational) in a global assessment of risks (over-irradiation and under-irradiation) incurred by the patients during radiotherapy and the impact of the existing safety barriers. Our previous works focused on qualitative analysis through functional, dysfunctional, and organizational analysis. These studies proposed systematic guidelines using formalisms such as SADT or FMEA/HAZOP to identify dysfunctional relations inside and between each dimension, and their impact of incurred risks. This paper aims to unify all these qualitative models in a probabilistic relational model that enables to provide not only qualitative recommendations but also a quantitative evaluation of risk. Radiotherapy can be seen as a product lifecycle, by considering treatment parameters as a product designed by a multidisciplinary team, realized and validated during the first treatment session, and finally used for each radiotherapy session. Each of these main phases are modeled using a Bayesian network pattern (derived from cognitive engineering) that captures the different causal influences of activity inputs (technical but also organizational) with regards to the activity failure modes and outputs. These Bayesian elementary networks are aggregated according to the causal flows identified in the previous qualitative analysis. Expert knowledge and adverse event databases should be used to parameter the network and provide the expected risk evaluation for each medical center. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

PubMed | CNRS Speech and Language Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Cognitive science | Year: 2016

In this study, we examined whether the lexical competition process embraced by most models of spoken word recognition is sensitive to talker-specific information. We used a lexical decision task and a long lag priming experiment in which primes and targets sharing all phonemes except the last one (e.g., /bagaR/fight vs. /baga/luggage) were presented in two separate blocks of stimuli. In Experiment 1, the competitor prime block was presented only once to listeners, and no modulation of the competitor priming effect as a function of a talker change between the primes and targets was observed. However, attenuation in the competitor priming effect in the case of a talker change between the primes and targets was observed in Experiment 2 in which the competitor prime block was presented five times to listeners. We discuss our findings in reference to hybrid models of spoken word recognition in which repetition of words with the same talker could be a key factor in the formation and access to talker-dependent representations.

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