CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory

Rennes, France

CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory

Rennes, France
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Carrault G.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory
Yearbook of medical informatics | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to review some important issues occurring during the past year in Implantable devices.METHODS: First cardiac implantable device was proposed to maintain an adequate heart rate, either because the heart's natural pacemaker is not fast enough, or there is a block in the heart's electrical conduction system. During the last forty years, pacemakers have evolved considerably and become programmable and allow to configure specific patient optimum pacing modes. Various technological aspects (electrodes, connectors, algorithms diagnosis, therapies, ...) have been progressed and cardiac implants address several clinical applications: management of arrhythmias, cardioversion / defibrillation and cardiac resynchronization therapy.RESULTS: Observed progress was the miniaturization of device, increased longevity, coupled with efficient pacing functions, multisite pacing modes, leadless pacing and also a better recognition of supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia's in order to deliver appropriate therapy. Subcutaneous implant, new modes of stimulation (leadless implant or ultrasound lead), quadripolar lead and new sensor or new algorithm for the hemodynamic management are introduced and briefly described. Each times, the main result occurring during the two past years are underlined and repositioned from the history, remaining limitations are also addressed.CONCLUSION: Some important technological improvements were described. Nevertheless, news trends for the future are also considered in a specific session such as the remote follow-up of the patient or the treatment of heart failure by neuromodulation.


Cosandier-Rimele D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bartolomei F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bartolomei F.,Aix - Marseille University | Bartolomei F.,Marseille University Hospital Center | And 7 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2012

Rapid discharges (25-80. Hz), a characteristic EEG pattern often recorded at seizure onset in partial epilepsies, are often considered as electrophysiological signatures of the epileptogenic zone. While the recording of rapid discharges from intracranial electrodes has long been established, their observation from the scalp is challenging. The prevailing view is that rapid discharges cannot be seen clearly (or at all) in scalp EEG because they have low signal-to-noise ratio. To date, however, no studies have investigated the 'observability' of rapid discharges, i.e. under what conditions and to what extent they can be visible in recorded EEG signals. Here, we used a model-based approach to examine the impact of several factors (distance to sources, skull conductivity, source area, source synchrony, and background activity) on the observability of rapid discharges in simultaneously simulated depth EEG and scalp EEG signals. In our simulations, the rapid discharge was clearly present in depth EEG signals but mostly almost not visible in scalp EEG signals. We identified some of the factors that may limit the observability of the rapid discharge on the scalp. Notably, surrounding background activity was found to be the most critical factor. The findings are discussed in relation to the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. © 2011 Elsevier Inc..


Marquez-Ruiz J.,Pablo De Olavide University | Leal-Campanario R.,Pablo De Olavide University | Sanchez-Campusano R.,Pablo De Olavide University | Molaee-Ardekani B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been successfully applied for modulation of cortical excitability. tDCS is capable of inducing changes in neuronal membrane potentials in a polarity-dependent manner. When tDCS is of sufficient length, synaptically driven after-effects are induced. The mechanisms underlying these after-effects are largely unknown, and there is a compelling need for animal models to test the immediate effects and after-effects induced by tDCS in different cortical areas and evaluate the implications in complex cerebral processes. Here we show in behaving rabbits that tDCS applied over the somatosensory cortex modulates cortical processes consequent to localized stimulation of the whisker pad or of the corresponding area of the ventroposterior medial (VPM) thalamic nucleus. With longer stimulation periods, poststimulation effects were observed in the somatosensory cortex only after cathodal tDCS. Consistent with the polarity-specific effects, the acquisition of classical eyeblink conditioning was potentiated or depressed by the simultaneous application of anodal or cathodal tDCS, respectively, when stimulation of the whisker pad was used as conditioned stimulus, suggesting that tDCS modulates the sensory perception process necessary for associative learning. We also studied the putative mechanisms underlying immediate effects and after-effects of tDCS observed in the somatosensory cortex. Results when pairs of pulses applied to the thalamic VPM nucleus (mediating sensory input) during anodal and cathodal tDCS suggest that tDCS modifies thalamocortical synapses at presynaptic sites. Finally, we show that blocking the activation of adenosine A1 receptors prevents the long-term depression (LTD) evoked in the somatosensory cortex after cathodal tDCS.


Modolo J.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2017

We assessed the effects of power-line frequency (60Hz in North America) magnetic fields (MF) in humans using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five participants were enrolled in a pseudo-double-blind experiment involving "real" or "sham" exposure to sinusoidal 60Hz MF exposures delivered using the gradient coil of an MRI scanner following two conditions: (i) 10s exposures at 3mT (10 repetitions); (ii) 2s exposures at 7.6mT (100 repetitions). Occipital EEG spectral power was computed in the alpha range (8-12Hz, reportedly the most sensitive to MF exposure in the literature) with/without exposure. Brain functional activation was studied using fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD, inversely correlated with EEG alpha power) maps. No significant effects were detected on occipital EEG alpha power during or post-exposure for any exposure condition. Consistent with EEG results, no effects were observed on fMRI BOLD maps in any brain region. Our results suggest that acute exposure (2-10s) to 60Hz MF from 3 to 7.6mT (30,000 to 76,000 times higher than average public exposure levels for 60Hz MF) does not induce detectable changes in EEG or BOLD signals. Combined with previous findings in which effects were observed on the BOLD signal after 1h exposure to 3mT, 60Hz MF, this suggests that MF exposure in the low mT range (<10mT) might require prolonged durations of exposure to induce detectable effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Rouede D.,Rennes Institute of Physics | Bellanger J.-J.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | Schaub E.,Rennes Institute of Physics | Recher G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Tiaho F.,University of Rennes 1
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2013

SHG angular intensity pattern (SHG-AIP) of healthy and proteolysed muscle tissues are simulated and imaged here for the first time to our knowledge. The role of the spatial distribution of second-order nonlinear emitters on SHG-AIP is highlighted. SHG-AIP with two symmetrical spots is found to be a signature of healthy muscle whereas SHG-AIP with one centered spot in pathological mdx muscle is found to be a signature of myofibrillar disorder. We also show that SHG-AIP provides information on the three-dimensional structural organization of myofibrils in physiological and proteolysed muscle. Our results open an avenue for future studies aimed at unraveling more complex physiological and pathological fibrillar tissues organization. © 2013 Biophysical Society.


Pietropaolo S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Guilleminot A.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | Guilleminot A.,University of Rennes 1 | Martin B.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: No animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with good construct validity are currently available; using genetic models of pathologies characterized by ASD-like deficits, but with known causes, may be therefore a promising strategy. The Fmr1-KO mouse is an example of this approach, modeling Fragile X syndrome, a well-known genetic disorder presenting ASD symptoms. The Fmr1-KO is available on different genetic backgrounds (FVB versus C57BL/6), which may explain some of the conflicting results that have been obtained with these mutants up till now. Methods: Fmr1 KO and their wild-type littermates on both the FVB and C57BL/6 genetic backgrounds were examined on a battery of tests modeling the clinical symptoms of ASD, including the triad of core symptoms (alterations in social interaction and communication, presence of repetitive behaviors), as well as the secondary symptoms (disturbances in sensori-motor reactivity and in circadian patterns of activity, epileptic events). Results: Fmr1-KO mice displayed autistic-like core symptoms of altered social interaction and occurrence of repetitive behaviors with additional hyperactivity. The genetic background modulated the effects of the Fmr1 deletion and it appears that the C57BL/6 background may be more suitable for further research on core autistic-like symptoms. Conclusions: The Fmr1-mouse line does not recapitulate all of the main core and secondary ASD symptoms, but still can be useful to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific ASD-like endophenotypes. © 2011 Pietropaolo et al.


Rouede D.,Rennes Institute of Physics | Bellanger J.-J.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | Bomo J.,Institut Universitaire de France | Baffet G.,Institut Universitaire de France | Tiaho F.,Institut Universitaire de France
Optics Express | Year: 2015

A linear least square (LLS) method is proposed to process polarization dependent SHG intensity analysis at pixel-resolution level in order to provide an analytic solution of nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) coefficients and of fibril orientation. This model is applicable to fibrils with identical orientation in the excitation volume. It has been validated on type I collagen fibrils from cell-free gel, tendon and extracellular matrix of F1 biliary epithelial cells. LLS is fast (a few hundred milliseconds for a 512 × 512 pixel image) and very easy to perform for non-expert in numerical signal processing. Theoretical simulation highlights the importance of signal to noise ratio for accurate determination of nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) coefficients. The results also suggest that, in addition to the peptide group, a second molecular nonlinear optical hyperpolarizability βcontributes to the SHG signal. Finally from fibril orientation analysis, results show that F1 cells remodel extracellular matrix collagen fibrils by changing fibril orientation, which might have important physiological function in cell migration and communication. © 2015 Optical Society of America.


Demont-Guignard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Demont-Guignard S.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | Benquet P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Benquet P.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2012

Objective: In partial epilepsies, interictal epileptic spikes (IESs) and fast ripples (FRs) represent clinically relevant biomarkers characteristic of epileptogenic networks. However, their specific significance and the pathophysiological changes leading to either FRs or IESs remain elusive. The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions in which hyperexcitable networks can generate either IESs or FRs and to reveal shared or distinct mechanisms that underlie both types of events. Methods: This study is the first to comparatively analyze mechanisms that induce either IESs or FRs using an approach that combines computational modeling and experimental data (in vivo and in vitro). A detailed CA1 hippocampal network model is introduced. A parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine which model parameters (cell related and network related) allow the most accurate simulation of FRs and IESs. Results: Our model indicates that although FRs and IESs share certain common mechanisms (shifted gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA] A reversal potential, altered synaptic transmission), there are also critical differences in terms of number of pyramidal cells involved (small vs large), spatial distribution of hyperexcitable pyramidal cells (clustered vs uniform), and firing patterns (weakly vs highly synchronized). In vitro experiments verified that subtle changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission favor either FRs or IESs, as predicted by the model. Interpretation: This study provides insights into the interpretation of 2 interictal markers observed in intracerebral electroencephalographic data. Depending on the degree and spatiotemporal features of hyperexcitability, not only IESs or FRs are generated but also transitions between both types of events. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.


Lafond C.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory
Journal of applied clinical medical physics / American College of Medical Physics | Year: 2013

This dosimetric study investigated the impact of multileaf collimators (MLC) leaf width in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck cancers (HNC), either with a "standard" simultaneously integrated boost technique (S-SIB) or with a "dose painting" SIB technique (DP-SIB). HNC patients were planned either with an S-SIB comprising three dose levels, from 56 to 70 Gy (16 patients), or with a DP-SIB comprising five dose levels, from 56 to 84 Gy (8 patients), in 35 fractions. Two VMAT plans were calculated for each SIB technique using two Elekta MLCs: MLCi2 with 10 mm leaf width and Beam Modulator (BM) with 4 mm leaf width. Dose distributions were evaluated by comparing doses on PTVs, main OARs, and healthy tissue, and by comparing conformation indexes. Treatment efficiencies were evaluated by comparing the number of monitor units and the number of needed arcs. Comparisons of the two MLCs depending on the two SIB techniques showed: i) Regarding PTVs: Dmean and D2% on lower doses PTV decreased respectively by 0.5 Gy (p = 0.01) and 0.9 Gy (p = 0.01) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; no significant difference was found for DP-SIB;ii) Regarding OARs: for spinal cord and brainstem, D2% decreased respectively by 1.2 Gy (p = 0.03) and 4.2 Gy (p = 0.04) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; for controlateral parotid, D50% decreased by 1.5 Gy (p = 0.01) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; iii) Regarding treatment efficiency: the number of monitor units was 44% (p = 0.00) and 51% (p = 0.01) higher with BM for S-SIB and DP-SIB, respectively. Two arcs were more frequently needed with BM to reach an acceptable dose distribution. This study demonstrated that Beam Modulator (4 mm leaf width) and MLCi2 (10 mm leaf width) MLCs from Elekta provided satisfactory dose distributions for treatment delivery with VMAT technique for complex HNC cases with standard and dose painting prescriptions. OAR sparing was better with BM, mainly for brainstem and spinal cord. However, delivery efficiency of VMAT plans was better with MLCi2.


Gigout S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Louvel J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rinaldi D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Martin B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2013

Electroencephalographic generalized spike and wave discharges (SWD), the hallmark of human absence seizures, are generated in thalamocortical networks. However, the potential alterations in these networks in terms of the efficacy of the reciprocal synaptic activities between the cortex and the thalamus are not known in this pathology. Here, the efficacy of these reciprocal connections is assessed in vitro in thalamocortical slices obtained from BS/Orl mice, which is a new genetic model of absence epilepsy. These mice show spontaneous SWD, and their features can be compared to that of BR/Orl mice, which are free of SWD. In addition, since gap junctions may modulate the efficacy of these connections, their implications in pharmacologically-induced epileptiform discharges were studied in the same slices. The thalamus and neocortex were independently stimulated and the electrically-evoked responses in both structures were recorded from the same slice. The synaptic efficacy of thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections were assessed by measuring the dynamic range of synaptic field potential changes in response to increasing stimulation strengths. The connection efficacy was weaker in epileptic mice however, this decrease in efficacy was more pronounced in thalamocortical afferents, thus introducing an imbalance in the reciprocal connections between the cortex and thalamus. However, short-term facilitation of the thalamocortical responses were increased in epileptic mice compared to non-epileptic animals. These features may favor occurrence of rhythmical activities in thalamocortical networks. In addition, carbenoxolone (a gap junction blocker) decreased the cumulative duration of 4-aminopyridine-induced ictal-like activities, with a slower time course in epileptic mice. However, the 4-aminopyridine-induced GABA-dependent negative potentials, which appeared to trigger the ictal-like activities, remained. Our results show that the balance of the reciprocal connections between the thalamus and cortex is altered in favor of the corticothalamic connections in epileptic mice, and suggest that gap junctions mediate a stronger cortical synchronization in this strain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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