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Seifi H.S.,Ghent University | Curvers K.,Ghent University | De Vleesschauwer D.,Ghent University | Delaere I.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Deficiency of abscisic acid (ABA) in the sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) culminates in increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea through a rapid epidermal hypersensitive response (HR) and associated phenylpropanoid pathway-derived cell wall fortifications. This study focused on understanding the role of primary carbon : nitrogen (C : N) metabolism in the resistance response of sitiens to B. cinerea. How alterations in C : N metabolism are linked with the HR-mediated epidermal arrest of the pathogen has been also investigated. Temporal alterations in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle and phenylpropanoid pathway were transcriptionally, enzymatically and metabolically monitored in both wild-type and sitiens plants. Virus-induced gene silencing, microscopic analyses and pharmacological assays were used to further confirm the data. Our results on the sitiens-B. cinerea interaction favor a model in which cell viability in the cells surrounding the invaded tissue is maintained by a constant replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through overactivation of the GS/GOGAT cycle and the GABA shunt, resulting in resistance through both tightly controlling the defense-associated HR and slowing down the pathogen-induced senescence. Collectively, this study shows that maintaining cell viability via alterations in host C : N metabolism plays a vital role in the resistance response against necrotrophic pathogens. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Fernandez O.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Bethencourt L.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Quero A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Sangwan R.S.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Clement Christophe C.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2010

The disaccharide trehalose is involved in stress response in many organisms. However, in plants, its precise role remains unclear, although some data indicate that trehalose has a protective role during abiotic stresses. By contrast, some trehalose metabolism mutants exhibit growth aberrations, revealing potential negative effects on plant physiology. Contradictory effects also appear under biotic stress conditions. Specifically, trehalose is essential for the infectivity of several pathogens but at the same time elicits plant defense. Here, we argue that trehalose should not be regarded only as a protective sugar but rather like a double-faced molecule and that further investigation is required to elucidate its exact role in stress tolerance in plants. © 2010.

Barka E.A.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Vatsa P.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Sanchez L.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Gaveau-Vaillant N.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | And 5 more authors.
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2016

Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal compounds. Consequently, these bacteria are of major importance for biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. Actinobacteria play diverse roles in their associations with various higher organisms, since their members have adopted different lifestyles, and the phylum includes pathogens (notably, species of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Propionibacterium, and Tropheryma), soil inhabitants (e.g., Micromonospora and Streptomyces species), plant commensals (e.g., Frankia spp.), and gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium spp.). Actinobacteria also play an important role as symbionts and as pathogens in plant-associated microbial communities. This review presents an update on the biology of this important bacterial phylum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Trda L.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Fernandez O.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Boutrot F.,Norwich Research Park | Heloir M.-C.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | And 7 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2014

The role of flagellin perception in the context of plant beneficial bacteria still remains unclear. Here, we characterized the flagellin sensing system flg22-FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) in grapevine, and analyzed the flagellin perception in the interaction with the endophytic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Burkholderia phytofirmans. The functionality of the grapevine FLS2 receptor, VvFLS2, was demonstrated by complementation assays in the Arabidopsis thaliana fls2 mutant, which restored flg22-induced H2O2 production and growth inhibition. Using synthetic flg22 peptides from different bacterial origins, we compared recognition specificities between VvFLS2 and AtFLS2. In grapevine, flg22-triggered immune responses are conserved and led to partial resistance against Botrytis cinerea. Unlike flg22 peptides derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Xanthomonas campestris, flg22 peptide derived from B. phytofirmans triggered only a small oxidative burst, weak and transient defense gene induction and no growth inhibition in grapevine. Although, in Arabidopsis, all the flg22 epitopes exhibited similar biological activities, the expression of VvFLS2 into the fls2 background conferred differential flg22 responses characteristic for grapevine. These results demonstrate that VvFLS2 differentially recognizes flg22 from different bacteria, and suggest that flagellin from the beneficial PGPR B. phytofirmans has evolved to evade this grapevine immune recognition system. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Fernandez O.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Theocharis A.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Bordiec S.,CNRS Research Unit on Grapevine and Wines in Champagne | Feil R.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2012

Low temperatures damage many temperate crops, including grapevine, which, when exposed to chilling, can be affected by symptoms ranging from reduced yield up to complete infertility. We have previously demonstrated that Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonizes grapevine, is able to reduce chilling-induced damage. We hypothesized that the induced tolerance may be explained at least partly by the impact of bacteria on grapevine photosynthesis or carbohydrate metabolism during cold acclimation. To investigate this hypothesis, we monitored herein the fluctuations of photosynthesis parameters (net photosynthesis [P n], intercellular CO 2 concentration, stomatal conductances, ΦPSII, and total chlorophyll concentration), starch, soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, saccharose, mannose, raffinose, and maltose), and their precursors during 5 days of chilling exposure (4°C) on grapevine plantlets. Bacterization affects photosynthesis in a non-Vstomatal dependent pattern and reduced long-term impact of chilling on P n. Furthermore, all studied carbohydrates known to be involved in cold stress tolerance accumulate in nonchilled bacterized plantlets, although some of them remained more concentrated in the latter after chilling exposure. Overall, our results suggest that modification of carbohydrate metabolism in bacterized grapevine plantlets may be one of the major effects by which this PGPR reduces chilling-induced damage. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.

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