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This article aims to study the process of heritage recognition in an industrial reconversion area in Belfort (east of France) in which some executors are constrained by territorial, political, economic, social and cultural requirements. Devised with a view to restructuring at city-wide scale, Techn’hom draws its originality from its spatial extent and its economic vocation. In this territory, the industrial potential has been based on the energy and transportation hubs since the end of the 19th Century, and more recently on research. Techn’hom is especially original as we observe more frequent cultural rehabilitation accompanying huge industrial heritage programs. This type of approach is therefore quite new. Territory, the process of heritage recognition, economy, different executors and architectural creativity raise questions on the concepts of both memory and forgetting. This contribution also studies the evolution of the heritage concept, its readability and its connection to humans and their surroundings, to history and to society in a future perspective. This urban operation -Techn’hom- shows its resilience and the close link between territory and its heritage as potential for innovative developments : social, political, cultural and economic. © Armand Colin. Source

Levay P.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Holweck F.,CNRS Research Institute on Transportation, Energy and Society
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We give a fermionic Fock space description of embedded entangled qubits. Within this framework the problem of classification of pure state entanglement boils down to the problem of classifying spinors. The usual notion of separable states turns out to be just a special case of the one of pure spinors. By using the notion of single, double and mixed occupancy representation with intertwiners relating them a natural physical interpretation of embedded qubits is found. As an application of these ideas one can make a physical sound meaning of some of the direct sum structures showing up in the context of the so-called black-hole/qubit correspondence. We discuss how the usual invariants for qubits serving as measures of entanglement can be obtained from invariants for spinors in an elegant manner. In particular a detailed case study for recovering the invariants for four-qubits within a spinorial framework is presented. We also observe that reality conditions on complex spinors defining Majorana spinors for embedded qubits boil down to self-conjugate states under the Wootters spin flip operation. Finally we conduct a study on the explicit structure of Spin(16,C) invariant polynomials related to the structure of possible measures of entanglement for fermionic systems with eight modes. Here we find an algebraically independent generating set of the generalized stochastic local operations and classical communication invariants and calculate their restriction to the dense orbit. We point out the special role the largest exceptional group E8 is playing in these considerations. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

Roth S.,CNRS Research Institute on Transportation, Energy and Society | Torres F.,Center dExpertise en Dynamique Rapide | Feuerstein P.,Hopital Albert Schweitzer | Thoral-Pierre K.,Center dExpertise en Dynamique Rapide
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Finite element analysis is frequently used in several fields such as automotive simulations or biomechanics. It helps researchers and engineers to understand the mechanical behaviour of complex structures. The development of computer science brought the possibility to develop realistic computational models which can behave like physical ones, avoiding the difficulties and costs of experimental tests. In the framework of biomechanics, lots of FE models have been developed in the last few decades, enabling the investigation of the behaviour of the human body submitted to heavy damage such as in road traffic accidents or in ballistic impact. In both cases, the thorax/abdomen/pelvis system is frequently injured. The understanding of the behaviour of this complex system is of extreme importance. In order to explore the dynamic response of this system to impact loading, a finite element model of the human thorax/abdomen/pelvis system has, therefore, been developed including the main organs: heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, the skeleton (with vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ribs), stomach, intestines, muscles, and skin. The FE model is based on a 3D reconstruction, which has been made from medical records of anonymous patients, who have had medical scans with no relation to the present study. Several scans have been analyzed, and specific attention has been paid to the anthropometry of the reconstructed model, which can be considered as a 50th percentile male model. The biometric parameters and laws have been implemented in the dynamic FE code (Radioss, Altair Hyperworks 11©) used for dynamic simulations. Then the 50th percentile model was validated against experimental data available in the literature, in terms of deflection, force, whose curve must be in experimental corridors. However, for other anthropometries (small male or large male models) question about the validation and results of numerical accident replications can be raised. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Azaouzi M.,CRP Henri Tudor | Lebaal N.,CNRS Research Institute on Transportation, Energy and Society | Makradi A.,CRP Henri Tudor | Belouettar S.,CRP Henri Tudor
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Self-expanding Nitinol (nickel-titanium alloy) stents are tubular, often mesh like structure, which are expanded inside a diseased (stenosed) artery segment to restore blood flow and keep the vessel open following angioplasty. The super-elastic and shape memory properties of Nitinol reduce the risk of damage to the stent both during delivery into the body and due to accidents while in operation. However, as Nitinol stents are subjected to a long-term cyclic pulsating load due to the heart beating (typically 4×107cycles/year) fatigue fracture may occur. One of the major design requirements in medical implants is the device lifetime or, in engineering terms, fatigue life. In order to improve the mechanical properties of Nitinol stents, at first, a reliable procedure of finite element analysis (FEA) is established to provide quantitative measures of the stent's strain amplitude and mean strain which are generated by the cyclic pulsating load. This allows prediction of the device's life and optimization of stent designs. Secondly, the objective is to optimize the stent design by reducing the strain amplitude and mean strain over the stent, which are generated by the cyclic pulsating load. An optimization based simulation methodology was developed in order to improve the fatigue endurance of the stent. The design optimization approach is based on the Response Surface Method (RSM), which is used in conjunction with Kriging interpolation and Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dadda B.,Center for Development of Renewable Energies (CDER) | Abboudi S.,CNRS Research Institute on Transportation, Energy and Society | Ghezal A.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

In the present work, a numerical study of heat and mass transfer within the membrane of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is presented. The electrolyte membrane is considered an isotropic porous medium and ideal insulator for electrons and reactants. The adopted model in this study is based on the assumption of single-phase and multi-spices flow, supposed two-dimensional and unsteady. For the water transport, the major considered forces are; the convective force, resulting from the pressure gradient, the osmotic force, due to the concentration gradient and the electric force caused by the proton migration from the anode to the cathode. Based on a one-dimensional model, found in the literature, a transient two-dimensional one was proposed. The set of governing equations, written in velocity-pressure formulation, is solved by the implicit finite difference method. An alternating Direct Implicit scheme was used for the calculation. The numerical resolution gives the time- and space-dependent temperature and water concentration. The main focus lies on the influence of different cases of boundary conditions on water concentration and heat transfer variation with the intention of testing the reliability of the proposed computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. Simulation results show that the calculation code responds well with the different boundary conditions. Furthermore, the variation way of temperature and water concentration at the membrane anode side has an important impact on their variation inside the membrane. That can help on reducing or rising the water content inside the fuel cell. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights. Source

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