CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory

Nancy, France

CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory

Nancy, France
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Berendonk T.U.,TU Dresden | Manaia C.M.,Catholic University of Portugal | Merlin C.,CNRS Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Microbiology for the Environment | Fatta-Kassinos D.,University of Cyprus | And 13 more authors.
Nature Reviews Microbiology | Year: 2015

Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Nanoparticles appear on the ingredient list of many products marketed for numerous technological applications. This paper discusses NBIC convergence (N for nano, B for biology, I for information and C for cognition), an aspect that has already been addressed by ethicists, "riskologists" who thought that the promises made by scientists would soon come to fruition. But after 15 years, NBIC convergence has not kept its technological promise to bring about profound changes for humans. This paper tries to explain this state of affairs, associated especially with a basic inability to make these distinct disciplines work together, through lack of time and financing. Fortunately this highly publicized fear of possible NBIC risks has not prevented studies on toxicological hazards induced by nanoparticles, but the scientific publications related to this anxiety exceed those dealing with the more widely accepted problem of information and communication technology (ICT). The second part of this article illustrates the existence of focus nodes in terms of anticipated risks that hide real risks. Copyright © 2017 John Libbey Eurotext.

Taniere A.,CNRS Mechanical Energy, Theories, and Applications Laboratory | Arcen B.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory
International Journal of Multiphase Flow | Year: 2014

Nowadays, two families of stochastic models are mainly used to predict the dispersion of inertial particles in inhomogeneous turbulent flows. This first one is named "normalized model" and the second one "Generalized Langevin Model (GLM)". Nevertheless, the main differences between the normalized and GLM models have not been thoroughly investigated. Is there a model which is more suitable to predict the particle dispersion in inhomogeneous turbulence? We propose in the present study to clarify this point by computing a particle-laden turbulent channel flow using a GLM-type model, and also a normalized-type model. Particle statistics (such as concentration, mean and rms particle velocity, fluid-particle velocity covariances) will be provided and compared to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data in order to assess the performance of both dispersion models. It will be shown that the normalized dispersion model studied can predict correctly the effect of particle inertia on some dispersion statistics, but not on all. For instance, it was found that the prediction of the particle kinetic shear stress and some components of the fluid-particle covariance is not physically acceptable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Dang Z.-M.,University of Science and Technology of China | Dang Z.-M.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Dang Z.-M.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Yuan J.-K.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 5 more authors.
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2012

There is an increasing need for high-permittivity (high-k) materials due to rapid development of electrical/electronic industry. It is well-known that single composition materials cannot meet the high-k need. The combination of dissimilar materials is expected to be an effective way to fabricate composites with high-k, especial for high-k polymer-matrix composites (PMC). This review paper focuses on the important role and challenges of high-k PMC in new technologies. The use of different materials in the PMC creates interfaces which have a crucial effect on final dielectric properties. Therefore it is necessary to understand dielectric properties and processing need before the high-k PMC can be made and applied commercially. Theoretical models for increasing dielectric permittivity are summarized and are used to explain the behavior of dielectric properties. The effects of fillers, fabrication processes and the nature of the interfaces between fillers and polymers are discussed. Potential applications of high-k PMC are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lukoshko E.,Warsaw University of Technology | Mutelet F.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Domanska U.,Warsaw University of Technology | Domanska U.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics | Year: 2015

Activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ1,28) for 35 solutes in two new tricyanomethanide containing Ionic Liquids were measured by inverse gas chromatography at temperatures from (318.15 to 368.15) K. Most organic compounds have stronger affinity with 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tricyanomethanide than 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide. The retention data were further converted to gas-to-IL and analyzed using the Abraham solvation parameter model. The LSER treatment indicates that the most dominant interaction constants for this family of ILs are strong dipolarity, hydrogen bond basicity and acidity. Quantum chemical gas phase DFT calculations were performed on isolated ion pairs at the 6-311 ++ G(d,p) level basis. It was found that the stacking structure of cation and anion is compact in the [BMIM][TCM] system and relatively loose in the [BMPY][TCM] system allowing a facile restructuring of the ionic liquid [BMPY][TCM] in the process of organic compounds dissolution. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Qian J.-W.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Privat R.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Jaubert J.-N.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

The phase behavior of water/hydrocarbon mixtures in a wide range of concentrations, temperatures, and pressures is important in a variety of chemical engineering applications. For this reason, the physical understanding and mathematical modeling of these aqueous-organic mixtures constitute a challenging task, both for scientists and for applied engineers. In this work, mutual solubilities, critical loci, and mixing enthalpies of water + hydrocarbon, water + carbon dioxide, water + nitrogen, water + hydrogen sulfide, and water + hydrogen binary mixtures are predicted using the PPR78 cubic equation of state (EoS). The extremely nonideal behavior of these systems produces unusual and complex thermodynamic behavior. As an example, such mixtures often exhibit type III phase behavior in the classification scheme of Van Konynenburg and Scott and are characterized by a vapor-liquid critical line which first exhibits a temperature minimum and then extends to temperatures above the critical point of pure water. Such a behavior, called gas-gas equilibria of the second kind is a consequence of the large degree of immiscibility of the two components. The selected PPR78 model combines the Peng-Robinson cubic EoS and a group-contribution method aimed at predicting the temperature-dependent binary interaction parameters, kij(T), involved in the Van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Although, it is acknowledged that cubic EoS with a constant kij are not suitable to predict phase equilibria of such highly nonideal systems, the addition of the H2O group to the PPR78 model makes it possible to conclude that the use of temperature-dependent binary interaction parameters not only results in qualitatively accurate predictions over wide pressure and temperature ranges but also leads to quantitatively reasonable predictions for many of the studied systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hassan E.-S.R.E.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Mutelet F.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Moise J.-C.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

Lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative raw material for the production of biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels begins with pretreatment to produce amorphous cellulose which can be hydrolysed to sugars. The use of ionic liquids has been described as a new potentially viable development in this area. Nevertheless, phase equilibria with biomass-derived compounds and also sugars, is still lacking in the literature. To overcome the lack of experimental data on phase equilibria of biomass carbohydrates in ionic liquids, the solubility of fructose, sucrose and lactose in ionic liquids was measured within a temperature range from 280 K to 390 K. Solubility data were successfully correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models. In this work, the possibility of extracting carbohydrates from ionic liquids using ethanol has also been evaluated. Results indicate that ethanol could be used as an antisolvent to separate sugars from ionic liquids. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Yu H.,Nagaoka University of Technology | Kobayashi T.,Nagaoka University of Technology | Hu G.-H.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory
Polymer | Year: 2011

Using a bromo-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) as a macroinitiator, an amphiphilic liquid-crystalline (LC) diblock copolymer with an azobenzene moiety as a nematic mesogen was prepared by an atom transfer radical polymerization process. In thin films of the well-defined diblock copolymer with the mesogenic block as a continuous phase upon microphase separation, the influence of supramolecular cooperative motion on the microphase-separated nanocylinders was systematically studied. Although the major phase of the hydrophobic nematic LC block showed only one-dimensional order, it could endow the separated minor phase of the hydrophilic PEO nanocylinders with three-dimensionally ordered structures. Both out-of-plane perpendicular and in-plane parallel patternings of the regularly ordered nanocylinder arrays were successfully fabricated on macroscopic scales by thermal annealing and photoalignment, respectively. The microphase-separated nanostructures with high regularity showed excellent reproducibility and mass production, which might guarantee nanotemplated fabrication processes and would lead to novel industrial applications in macromolecular engineering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hassan E.-S.R.E.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Mutelet F.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Bouroukba M.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2015

With increasing interest in the use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable transportation fuels, new approaches for biomass pretreatment have been of considerable interest. The conversion of biomass cellulose to water-soluble sugars is currently one of the most intensive demands worldwide. The use of ionic liquids has been described as a new potentially viable development in this area. Indeed, previous work indicates that carbohydrates are soluble in some imidazolium based ionic liquids. For a better understanding of the behavior of such systems, theoretical quantum chemical calculation have become complementarities of experimental measurements. The goal of this work is to investigate the fundamental natures of the interaction between glucose or cellulose and imidazolium based ionic liquids using ab initio calculations and comparing these results with experimental data. Furthermore, a characterization study was made to investigate the changes in the cellulose structure during the process of solubility and regeneration with ionic liquids. ©2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen Y.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Mutelet F.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory | Jaubert J.-N.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2014

The aim of this work is to investigate phase equilibrium of binary systems encountered in the extractive desulfurization of gasoline and diesel using ionic liquids. This work is focused on two ionic liquids: 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosponate [DMIM][Ph] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocynate [EMIM][SCN]. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) measurements on binary systems of ionic liquids with various solutes including thiophene, pyridine, toluene, and water at pressures close to the atmospheric pressure were performed and correlated by the PC-SAFT equation of state. The molecular parameters of pure ILs were determined from experimental density data, whereas binary interaction parameters kij were optimized on experimental VLE data. The eight binary mixtures: {thiophene+ILs}, {pyridine+ILs}, {toluene+ILs}, and {water+ILs} studied in this paper were accurately described by the PC-SAFT equation of state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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