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Beyries S.,CNRS Prehistoric, Antique and Middle Age Studies | Cattin M.-I.,Office du patrimoine et de larcheologie de Neuchatel Latenium
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Most Upper Palaeolithic sites show a tendency for tools to correspond to a single function. In this case, successive resharpening leads to a reduction in tool size, changes in morphology, and changes to the angle of the active edges. In contrast, tools are sometimes resharpened, reshaped, and/or recycled after use for domestic activities, and are then employed for highly specialized tasks.In this paper, we will show how tool management can be different through examples from the European Magdalenian: Champréveyres and Monruz, two open-air sites with seasonal occupations, and Roc-aux-Sorciers, a rock shelter site with a long occupation and remarkable artistic activities. The status of these sites involves different visions, conceptions, and managements of the tools. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Naudinot N.,CNRS Prehistoric, Antique and Middle Age Studies | Kelly R.L.,University of Wyoming
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

We introduce the papers of the QI Special Issue: Climate Change and Archaeology which were presented at the Second Frison Institute Symposium at the 2014 Society for American Archaeology annual meeting. Papers here examine the links between climate and cultural change, calling attention to the difficulty of determining the role played by climate in cultural change. Issues include whether chronological resolution of climate and cultural change is sufficient to determine that the former "caused" the latter. An additional issue is, assuming the chronological correlation is resolved, whether an observed behavioral or technological change can be attributed to climate change, or if the correlation is spurious. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

This paper focuses on the structure and the issue of the Greek texts belonging to the discipline known as iology, and dealing with venomous animals and their bites/stings. Considering the treatise of Philumenus (About Venemous Beasts) and more generally the iologic corpus of prosaic works that form a coherent network (Aelius Promotus, Pseudo-Dioscorides) it scrutinizes the types of knowledge involved in these treaties and their relationship with medical and naturalist knowledge, especially in the case of the snakes. The organization and importance of the various data (naturalistic, toxicological, clinical, therapeutic and pharmacological), the name of the experts invoked in these texts and the role played by the author of the treatise help define the scientific and generic characteristics of this literature. "Treaties on venomous animals" are compilatory books that are strictly neither medical textbooks nor guides of herpetology, and they generally focus on clinical matters (even more than therapeutical). If they form a "genre", it is determined as much by litterary practice and tradition as by a medical context and horizon. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. Source

Dietrich J.-B.,CNRS Prehistoric, Antique and Middle Age Studies
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2013

The MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) family of transcription factors is composed of four distinct vertebrate genes. These factors were first identified in muscle but are also present in brain. MEF2 is involved in neuronal survival and is able to regulate the growth and pruning of neurons in response to stimulation. Dendrite remodelling is under the control of genes that MEF2 can turn on or off and some of its target genes have been identified. Among them are immediate-early genes such as C-JUN and NUR77 and neuronal-activity-regulated genes such as ARC, SYNGAP, HOMER1A and BDNF. MEF2 is able to control the synapse number in the hippocampus in which its activation inhibits the growth of dendritic spines, highlighting its important role in memory and learning. In addition, mutations in the MEF2 gene has been found in patients with Rett-like disorder. MEF2 has also been implicated in other pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

The Hohokam (AD 100-1450), their descendants the Akimel O'Odham (>AD 1694) and the white pioneers (19th c. AD) have cultivated and irrigated the lower Salt River valley in the semi-arid Phoenix Basin for almost two thousand years. This occupation is characterized by major changes in agriculture, social organization, architecture and landscape, which have modified this semi-arid valley on the long-term. Because of the continuous interaction of its members with water, a rare resource used in the region for domestic and agricultural purposes, the question of its availability and scarcity on the long-term needs to be answered. To do so, we have reconstructed the evolution of the Salt River alluvial dynamics by means of a systemic geomorphological and chronological approach. Second, in order to measure how these communities have adapted to hydro-climatic changes in a constraining environment, we have confronted these results to archeological, paleoenvironmental and ethnographic data on water management, agrarian practices, subsistence strategies and settlement pattern. The results obtained allow us to discuss the relative impact of human factors, such as human pressure and environmental constraints, mainly abrupt climate changes, on the cultural evolution of agrarian communities and therefore suggest an illustration of systemic answers to ecological and social issues in semi-arid environments. Source

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