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Schoville S.D.,CNRS Complex Medical Engineering Laboratory | Schoville S.D.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Bonin A.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Francois O.,CNRS Complex Medical Engineering Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2012

There is a growing interest in identifying ecological factors that Influence adaptive genetic diversity patterns in both model and nonmodel species. The emergence of large genomic and environmental data sets, as well as the increasing sophistication of population genetics methods, provides an opportunity to characterize these patterns in relation to the environment. Landscape genetics has emerged as a flexible analytical framework that connects patterns of adaptive genetic variation to environmental heterogeneity in a spatially explicit context. Recent growth in this field has led to the development of numerous spatial statistical methods, prompting a discussion of the current benefits and limitations of these approaches. Here we provide a review of the design of landscape genetics studies, the different statistical tools, some important case studies, and perspectives on how future advances in this field are likely to shed light on important processes in evolution and ecology. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Holderegger R.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Holderegger R.,ETH Zurich | Buehler D.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Buehler D.,ETH Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2010

Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of landscape ecology and population genetics to help with understanding microevolutionary processes such as gene flow and adaptation. In this review, we examine why landscape genetics of plants lags behind that of animals, both in number of studies and consideration of landscape elements. The classical landscape distance/resistance approach to study gene flow is challenging in plants, whereas boundary detection and the assessment of contemporary gene flow are more feasible. By contrast, the new field of landscape genetics of adaptive genetic variation, establishing the relationship between adaptive genomic regions and environmental factors in natural populations, is prominent in plant studies. Landscape genetics is ideally suited to study processes such as migration and adaptation under global change. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

According to the Millennium development goals (MDG), in 2012, 800 million people worldwide still had no access to safe drinking water. Sub-Saharan Africa records the lowest rate: two persons in five still lack this access. This article aims to demonstrate that theMDG drinking water target, both by its definition and the data used to define it, does not address the health risks related to water access, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This statistic is based only on the source of water, but does not include aspects of accessibility related to distance and/or time required to collect water, the cost, or the quality and quantity used, although all of these affect health outcomes. In Ouagadougou, if only two aspects of accessibility are taken into account (the quantity available at homeand distance to thewater point), the rate of water access is half that of that used by the MDG. A relevant indicator of access to water is needed as leverage for the adoption of effective public health policies. Access to drinking water has been defined as a human right since 2010. Source

Barthelemy C.,CNRS Population, Environment, and Development Laboratory | Armani G.,University Lumiere Lyon 2
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2015

Understanding social processes (trajectories of relationships among stakeholders), political constraints, cultural aspects and public opinions is essential for efficient design, sustainability and evaluation of restoration operations. However, few restoration projects involve the participation of social sciences. The ecological restoration of the Rhône River involved increasing flow below dams and better connecting floodplain channels at multiple sites along the river. Therefore, it provided a unique opportunity to identify the commonalities and differences among social processes associated with ecological restoration. We used qualitative analyses of speeches and interviews with stakeholders to understand their relationship to the Rhône. These analyses revealed that social values, relating local residents to the river, played a major role throughout the restoration projects. The comparison of social processes among three sites of the Rhône shows that they generally followed three stages: managing a crisis, transforming the relationship to the river and valuing the local social space (the territory). Consistent patterns emerging across sites included the following: (i) the role of a local public figure able to mobilise stakeholders in supporting the restoration project; (ii) the importance of the organisation of the stakeholder community and its commitment to the project; and (iii) the major role of interactions between local and national levels. Variation across sites also occurred and may be related to unforeseen events such as political changes and natural hazards (e.g. floods and pollution). Involving social science in restoration projects requires taking into account commonalities in social processes as well as the diversity of local experiences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Manel S.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Manel S.,CNRS Population, Environment, and Development Laboratory | Poncet B.N.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Legendre P.,University of Montreal | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

A major challenges facing landscape geneticists studying adaptive variation is to include all the environmental variables that might be correlated with allele frequencies across the genome. One way of identifying loci that are possibly under selection is to see which ones are associated with environmental gradient or heterogeneity. Since it is difficult to measure all environmental variables, one may take advantage of the spatial nature of environmental filters to incorporate the effect of unaccounted environmental variables in the analysis. Assuming that the spatial signature of these variables is broad-scaled, broad-scale Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM) can be included as explanatory variables in the analysis as proxies for unmeasured environmental variables. We applied this approach to two data sets of the alpine plant Arabis alpina. The first consisted of 140 AFLP loci sampled at 130 sites across the European Alps (large scale). The second one consisted of 712 AFLP loci sampled at 93 sites (regional scale) in three mountain massifs (local scale) of the French Alps. For each scale, we regressed the frequencies of each AFLP allele on a set of eco-climatic and MEM variables as predictors. Twelve (large scale) and 11% (regional scale) of all loci were detected as significantly correlated to at least one of the predictors (> 0.5), and, except for one massif, 17% at the local scale. After accounting for spatial effects, temperature and precipitation were the two major determinants of allele distributions. Our study shows how MEM models can account for unmeasured environmental variation in landscape genetics models. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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