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Gough C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gough C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Jacquet C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Plant plasma membrane-bound receptors with extracellular lysin motif (LysM) domains participate in interactions with microorganisms. In Medicago truncatula, the LysM receptor-like kinase gene nodulation (Nod) factor perception (NFP) is a key gene that controls the perception of rhizobial lipochitooligosaccharide (LCO) Nod factors for the establishment of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. In this article, we review recent data that have refined our understanding of this function and that have revealed a role for NFP in the perception of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiotic signals and plant pathogenic microorganisms. The dual role of NFP in symbiosis and immunity suggests that this receptor protein controls the perception of different signals and the activation of different downstream signalling pathways. These advances provide new insights into the evolution and functioning of this versatile plant protein. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Delaux P.-M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Sejalon-Delmas N.,Ecolab | Becard G.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Ane J.-M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Beneficial associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in terrestrial environments and in the sustainability of agroecosystems. Proteins, microRNAs, and small molecules have been identified in model angiosperms as required for the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and define a symbiotic 'toolkit' used for other interactions such as the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Based on recent studies, we propose an evolutionary framework for this toolkit. Some components appeared recently in angiosperms, whereas others are highly conserved even in land plants unable to form arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The exciting finding that some components pre-date the appearance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggests the existence of unknown roles for this toolkit and even the possibility of symbiotic associations in charophyte green algae. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Denance N.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Sanchez-Vallet A.,Wageningen University | Sanchez-Vallet A.,Technical University of Madrid | Goffner D.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Molina A.,Technical University of Madrid
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids, that have been thoroughly described to regulate plant development and growth, have recently emerged as key regulators of plant immunity. Plant hormones interact in complex networks to balance the response to developmental and environmental cues and thus limiting defense-associated fitness costs. The molecular mechanisms that govern these hormonal networks are largely unknown. Moreover, hormone signaling pathways are targeted by pathogens to disturb and evade plant defense responses. In this review, we address novel insights on the regulatory roles of the ABA, SA, and auxin in plant resistance to pathogens and we describe the complex interactions among their signal transduction pathways. The strategies developed by pathogens to evade hormone-mediated defensive responses are also described. Based on these data we discuss how hormone signaling could be manipulated to improve the resistance of crops to pathogens. © 2013 Denancé, Sánchez-Vallet, Goffner and Molina.

Marino D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Marino D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Marino D.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Dunand C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules able to damage cellular components but they also act as cell signalling elements. ROS are produced by many different enzymatic systems. Plant NADPH oxidases, also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are the most thoroughly studied enzymatic ROS-generating systems and our understanding of their involvement in various plant processes has increased considerably in recent years. In this review we discuss their roles as ROS producers during cell growth, plant development and plant response to abiotic environmental constraints and biotic interactions, both pathogenic and symbiotic. This broad range of functions suggests that RBOHs may serve as important molecular 'hubs' during ROS-mediated signalling in plants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Delaux P.-M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Becard G.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Combier J.-P.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhization require the activation of plant host symbiotic programs by Nod factors, and Myc-LCOs and COs, respectively. The pathways involved in the perception and downstream signaling of these signals include common and distinct components. Among the distinct components, NSP1, a GRAS transcription factor, has been considered for years to be specifically involved in nodulation. Here, we analyzed the degree of conservation of the NSP1 sequence in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) host and non-AM host plants and carefully examined the ability of Medicago truncatula nsp1 mutants to respond to Myc-LCOs and to be colonized by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. In AM-host plants, the selection pressure on NSP1 is stronger than in non-AM host ones. The response to Myc-LCOs and the frequency of mycorrhizal colonization are significantly reduced in the nsp1 mutants. Our results reveal that NSP1, previously described for its involvement in the Nod factor signaling pathway, is also involved in the Myc-LCO signaling pathway. They bring additional evidence on the evolutionary relatedness between nodulation and mycorrhization. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

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