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Picart C.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Pontvianne F.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Nucleus | Year: 2017

The nucleolus forms as a consequence of ribosome biogenesis, but it is also implicated in other cell functions. The identification of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs) in animal and plant cells revealed the presence of DNA sequences other than rRNA genes in and around the nucleolus. NADs display repressive chromatin signatures and harbour repetitive DNA, but also tRNA genes and RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Furthermore, the identification of NADs revealed a specific function of the nucleolus and the protein Nucleolin 1 (NUC1) in telomere biology. Here, we discuss the significance of these data with regard to nucleolar structure and to the role of the nucleolus and NUC1 in global genome organization and stability. © 2017 Taylor & Francis.


Garcia D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Garcia S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pontier D.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Marchais A.,ETH Zurich | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2012

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the putative RNA-helicase SDE3 assists posttranscriptional-gene-silencing (PTGS) amplification by RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase-6 (RDR6). SDE3 homologs in Drosophila, worm and human contribute to silence viruses, transposons or recently duplicated genes but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SDE3 is present with the PTGS effectors AGO1 and AGO2 in higher-order protein complexes owing to a specialized GW-repeat-containing C-terminal domain. We uncover an essential contribution of the RNA-helicase activity and a facilitating role for AGO binding in SDE3 action, which occurs downstream of RDR6. We show that these biochemical properties underpin dual roles for SDE3 in antiviral defense and, unexpectedly, in transposon silencing via a hitherto unanticipated pathway that correlates with DNA methylation, suggesting a continuum of action between PTGS and chromatin-level silencing. We identified endogenous SDE3 targets corresponding to nonconserved intergenic regions, transposons and recently evolved pseudogenes, unraveling striking functional convergences among plant and metazoan SDE3 pathways. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Layat E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Saez-Vasquez J.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Tourmente S.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

The 18S, 5.8S and 25S rRNAs, which result from the 45S precursor, together with 5S rRNAs, are central components of the ribosome. The integration of one molecule of each rRNA per ribosome necessitates an elaborate coordination between transcriptions of the two ribosomal DNA (rDNA) families. Even though 5S rDNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and 45S rDNA by RNA polymerase I, the two rDNA families present certain similarities in their transcriptional regulation. This review aims to compare 5S and 45S rRNA genes in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organization, transcription and regulation, and draws parallels between the two rDNA families. © 2011 The Author.


Baidouri M.E.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Baidouri M.E.,University of Georgia | Carpentier M.-C.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Cooke R.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2014

Vertical, transgenerational transmission of genetic material occurs through reproduction of living organisms. In addition to vertical inheritance, horizontal gene transfer between reproductively isolated species has recently been shown to be an important, if not dominant, mechanism in the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. In contrast, only a few horizontal transfer (HT) events have been characterized so far in eukaryotes and mainly concern transposable elements (TEs). Whether these are frequent and have a significant impact on genome evolution remains largely unknown. We performed a computational search for highly conserved LTR retrotransposons among 40 sequenced eukaryotic genomes representing the major plant families. We found that 26 genomes (65%) harbor at least one case of horizontal TE transfer (HTT). These transfers concern species as distantly related as palm and grapevine, tomato and bean, or poplar and peach. In total, we identified 32 cases of HTTs, which could translate into more than 2 million among the 13,551 monocot and dicot genera. Moreover, we show that these TEs have remained functional after their transfer, occasionally causing a transpositional burst. This suggests that plants can frequently exchange genetic material through horizontal transfers and that this mechanism may be important in TE-driven genome evolution. © 2014 Nagarajan et al.


Baidouri M.E.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Panaud O.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function, and evolution of their host genome, and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in eight plant genomes for which a high-quality sequence is available (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum, and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these eight plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size, and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in the recent past, and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage specific. These new findings lead us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


Durut N.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Saez-Vasquez J.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Gene | Year: 2015

Nucleolin is a major nucleolar protein conserved in all eukaryotic organisms. It is a multifunctional protein involved in different cellular aspects like chromatin organization and stability, DNA and RNA metabolism, assembly of ribonucleoprotein complexes, cytokinesis, cell proliferation and stress response. The multifunctionality of nucleolin is linked to its tripartite structure, post-translational modifications and its ability of shuttling from and to the nucleolus/nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Nucleolin has been now studied for many years and its activities and properties have been described in a number of excellent reviews.Here, we overview the role of nucleolin in RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) transcription and describe recent results concerning its functional interaction with rDNA chromatin organization. For a long time, nucleolin has been associated with rRNA gene expression and pre-rRNA processing. However, the functional connection between nucleolin and active versus inactive rRNA genes is still not fully understood. Novel evidence indicates that the nucleolin protein might be required for controlling the transcriptional ON/OFF states of rDNA chromatin in both mammals and plants. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Meyer Y.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Belin C.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Delorme-Hinoux V.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Reichheld J.-P.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Riondet C.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Thioredoxins (Trx) and glutaredoxins (Grx) constitute families of thiol oxidoreductases. Our knowledge of Trx and Grx in plants has dramatically increased during the last decade. The release of the Arabidopsis genome sequence revealed an unexpectedly high number of Trx and Grx genes. The availability of several genomes of vascular and nonvascular plants allowed the establishment of a clear classification of the genes and the chronology of their appearance during plant evolution. Proteomic approaches have been developed that identified the putative Trx and Grx target proteins which are implicated in all aspects of plant growth, including basal metabolism, iron/sulfur cluster formation, development, adaptation to the environment, and stress responses. Analyses of the biochemical characteristics of specific Trx and Grx point to a strong specificity toward some target enzymes, particularly within plastidial Trx and Grx. In apparent contradiction with this specificity, genetic approaches show an absence of phenotype for most available Trx and Grx mutants, suggesting that redundancies also exist between Trx and Grx members. Despite this, the isolation of mutants inactivated in multiple genes and several genetic screens allowed the demonstration of the involvement of Trx and Grx in pathogen response, phytohormone pathways, and at several control points of plant development. Cytosolic Trxs are reduced by NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (NTR), while the reduction of Grx depends on reduced glutathione (GSH). Interestingly, recent development integrating biochemical analysis, proteomic data, and genetics have revealed an extensive crosstalk between the cytosolic NTR/Trx and GSH/Grx systems. This crosstalk, which occurs at multiple levels, reveals the high plasticity of the redox systems in plants. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.


Azevedo J.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Cooke R.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Lagrange T.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Argonautes are central and common components of crucial effectors of RNA silencing pathways. Although earlier steps in these pathways, such as small RNA biogenesis and their loading into AGO, have been quite well described, our knowledge on regulation of the action of AGO and their partners is still poor. Recent breakthroughs have highlighted the existence in many eukaryotes of an evolutionarily conserved motif, the Ago-hook, in factors implicated in AGO action. Furthermore, it has been shown that certain plant pathogen proteins have co-opted the Ago-hook as a means of evasion of plant defense systems. Here we discuss the roles and properties of Ago-hook proteins in divergent RNAi-related pathways. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lahmy S.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Bies-Etheve N.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Lagrange T.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Epigenetics | Year: 2010

In recent years, a major breakthrough in the study of epigenetic silencing in eukaryotes came with the discovery that the RNA-interference pathway (RNAi) is generally implicated in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. An important and paradoxical feature of the RNAi-mediated heterochromatin pathways is their requirement for some form of transcription. In fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, centromeric siRNAs have been shown to derive from chromatin-bound nascent transcripts produced by RNA polymerase II (PolII) at the site of heterochromatin formation. Likewise, chromatin-bound nascent transcripts generated by a PolII-related DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, known as PolIVb/PolV, have recently been implicated in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), the prominent RNAi-mediated chromatin pathway in plants. In this review we discuss recent work on the plant-specific PolII variant enzymes and discuss the mechanistic convergences that have been observed in the role of these enzymes in their respective siRNA-mediated heterochromatin formation pathways. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.


Garcia-Aguilar M.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Michaud C.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Leblanc O.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Grimanelli D.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Plant Cell | Year: 2010

Apomictic plants reproduce asexually through seeds by avoiding both meiosis and fertilization. Although apomixis is genetically regulated, its core genetic component(s) has not been determined yet. Using profiling experiments comparing sexual development in maize (Zea mays) to apomixis in maize-Tripsacum hybrids, we identified six loci that are specifically downregulated in ovules of apomictic plants. Four of them share strong homology with members of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, which in Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in silencing via DNA methylation. Analyzing loss-of-function alleles for two maize DNA methyltransferase genes belonging to that subset, dmt102 and dmt103, which are downregulated in the ovules of apomictic plants and are homologous to the Arabidopsis CHROMOMETHYLASEs and DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE families, revealed phenotypes reminiscent of apomictic development, including the production of unreduced gametes and formation of multiple embryo sacs in the ovule. Loss of DMT102 activity in ovules resulted in the establishment of a transcriptionally competent chromatin state in the archesporial tissue and in the egg cell that mimics the chromatin state found in apomicts. Interestingly, dmt102 and dmt103 expression in the ovule is found in a restricted domain in and around the germ cells, indicating that a DNA methylation pathway active during reproduction is essential for gametophyte development in ma ize and likely playsa critical role in the differentiation between apomictic and sexual reproduction. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

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