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Panaud O.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2016

Transposable elements (TEs) are the major components of eukaryotic genomes. Their propensity to densely populate and in some cases invade the genomes of plants and animals is in contradiction with the fact that transposition is strictly controlled by several molecular pathways acting at either transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Horizontal transfers, defined as the transmission of genetic material between sexually isolated species, have long been considered as rare phenomena. Here, we show that the horizontal transfers of transposable elements (HTTs) are very frequent in ecosystems. The exact mechanisms of such transfers are not well understood, but species involved in close biotic interactions, like parasitism, show a propensity to exchange genetic material horizontally. We propose that HTTs allow TEs to escape the silencing machinery of their host genome and may therefore be an important mechanism for their survival and their dissemination in eukaryotes. © 2016 Académie des sciences.

Layat E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Saez-Vasquez J.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Tourmente S.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

The 18S, 5.8S and 25S rRNAs, which result from the 45S precursor, together with 5S rRNAs, are central components of the ribosome. The integration of one molecule of each rRNA per ribosome necessitates an elaborate coordination between transcriptions of the two ribosomal DNA (rDNA) families. Even though 5S rDNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and 45S rDNA by RNA polymerase I, the two rDNA families present certain similarities in their transcriptional regulation. This review aims to compare 5S and 45S rRNA genes in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organization, transcription and regulation, and draws parallels between the two rDNA families. © 2011 The Author.

Garcia D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Garcia S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pontier D.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Marchais A.,ETH Zurich | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2012

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the putative RNA-helicase SDE3 assists posttranscriptional-gene-silencing (PTGS) amplification by RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase-6 (RDR6). SDE3 homologs in Drosophila, worm and human contribute to silence viruses, transposons or recently duplicated genes but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SDE3 is present with the PTGS effectors AGO1 and AGO2 in higher-order protein complexes owing to a specialized GW-repeat-containing C-terminal domain. We uncover an essential contribution of the RNA-helicase activity and a facilitating role for AGO binding in SDE3 action, which occurs downstream of RDR6. We show that these biochemical properties underpin dual roles for SDE3 in antiviral defense and, unexpectedly, in transposon silencing via a hitherto unanticipated pathway that correlates with DNA methylation, suggesting a continuum of action between PTGS and chromatin-level silencing. We identified endogenous SDE3 targets corresponding to nonconserved intergenic regions, transposons and recently evolved pseudogenes, unraveling striking functional convergences among plant and metazoan SDE3 pathways. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Baidouri M.E.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Baidouri M.E.,University of Georgia | Carpentier M.-C.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Cooke R.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2014

Vertical, transgenerational transmission of genetic material occurs through reproduction of living organisms. In addition to vertical inheritance, horizontal gene transfer between reproductively isolated species has recently been shown to be an important, if not dominant, mechanism in the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. In contrast, only a few horizontal transfer (HT) events have been characterized so far in eukaryotes and mainly concern transposable elements (TEs). Whether these are frequent and have a significant impact on genome evolution remains largely unknown. We performed a computational search for highly conserved LTR retrotransposons among 40 sequenced eukaryotic genomes representing the major plant families. We found that 26 genomes (65%) harbor at least one case of horizontal TE transfer (HTT). These transfers concern species as distantly related as palm and grapevine, tomato and bean, or poplar and peach. In total, we identified 32 cases of HTTs, which could translate into more than 2 million among the 13,551 monocot and dicot genera. Moreover, we show that these TEs have remained functional after their transfer, occasionally causing a transpositional burst. This suggests that plants can frequently exchange genetic material through horizontal transfers and that this mechanism may be important in TE-driven genome evolution. © 2014 Nagarajan et al.

Azevedo J.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Cooke R.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory | Lagrange T.,CNRS Plant Genome and Development Laboratory
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Argonautes are central and common components of crucial effectors of RNA silencing pathways. Although earlier steps in these pathways, such as small RNA biogenesis and their loading into AGO, have been quite well described, our knowledge on regulation of the action of AGO and their partners is still poor. Recent breakthroughs have highlighted the existence in many eukaryotes of an evolutionarily conserved motif, the Ago-hook, in factors implicated in AGO action. Furthermore, it has been shown that certain plant pathogen proteins have co-opted the Ago-hook as a means of evasion of plant defense systems. Here we discuss the roles and properties of Ago-hook proteins in divergent RNAi-related pathways. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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