CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development

Montpellier, France

CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development

Montpellier, France
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Lucas M.,University of Nottingham | Lucas M.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Kenobi K.,University of Nottingham | Von Wangenheim D.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 17 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

In Arabidopsis, lateral root primordia (LRPs) originate from pericycle cells located deep within the parental root and have to emerge through endodermal, cortical, and epidermal tissues. These overlaying tissues place biomechanical constraints on the LRPs that are likely to impact their morphogenesis. This study probes the interplay between the patterns of cell division, organ shape, and overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis by exploiting recent advances in live plant cell imaging and image analysis. Our 3D/4D image analysis revealed that early stage LRPs exhibit tangential divisions that create a ring of cells corralling a population of rapidly dividing cells at its center. The patterns of division in the latter population of cells during LRP morphogenesis are not stereotypical. In contrast, statistical analysis demonstrated that the shape of new LRPs is highly conserved. We tested the relative importance of cell division pattern versus overlaying tissues on LRP morphogenesis using mutant and transgenic approaches. The double mutant aurora1 (aur1) aur2 disrupts the pattern of LRP cell divisions and impacts its growth dynamics, yet the new organ's dome shape remains normal. In contrast, manipulating the properties of overlaying tissues disrupted LRP morphogenesis. We conclude that the interaction with overlaying tissues, rather than the precise pattern of divisions, is most important for LRP morphogenesis and optimizes the process of lateral root emergence. © PNAS 2013.

De Mita S.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Chantret N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Loridon K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ronfort J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bataillon T.,University of Aarhus
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: We studied patterns of molecular adaptation in the wild Mediterranean legume Medicago truncatula. We focused on two phenotypic traits that are not functionally linked: flowering time and perception of symbiotic microbes. Phenology is an important fitness component, especially for annual plants, and many instances of molecular adaptation have been reported for genes involved in flowering pathways. While perception of symbiotic microbes is also integral to adaptation in many plant species, very few reports of molecular adaptation exist for symbiotic genes. Here we used data from 57 individuals and 53 gene fragments to quantify the overall strength of both positive and purifying selection in M. truncatula and asked if footprints of positive selection can be detected at key genes of rhizobia recognition pathways. Results: We examined nucleotide variation among 57 accessions from natural populations in 53 gene fragments: 5 genes involved in nitrogen-fixing bacteria recognition, 11 genes involved in flowering, and 37 genes used as control loci. We detected 1757 polymorphic sites yielding an average nucleotide diversity (pi) of 0.003 per site. Non-synonymous variation is under sizable purifying selection with 90% of amino-acid changing mutations being strongly selected against. Accessions were structured in two groups consistent with geographical origins. Each of these two groups harboured an excess of rare alleles, relative to expectations of a constant-sized population, suggesting recent population expansion. Using coalescent simulations and an approximate Bayesian computation framework we detected several instances of genes departing from selective neutrality within each group and showed that the polymorphism of two nodulation and four flowering genes has probably been shaped by recent positive selection. Conclusion: We quantify the intensity of purifying selection in the M. truncatula genome and show that putative footprints of natural selection can be detected at different time scales in both flowering and symbiotic pathways. © 2011 De Mita et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

De Mita S.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | De Mita S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Thuillet A.-C.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Gay L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2013

Thanks to genome-scale diversity data, present-day studies can provide a detailed view of how natural and cultivated species adapt to their environment and particularly to environmental gradients. However, due to their sensitivity, up-to-date studies might be more sensitive to undocumented demographic effects such as the pattern of migration and the reproduction regime. In this study, we provide guidelines for the use of popular or recently developed statistical methods to detect footprints of selection. We simulated 100 populations along a selective gradient and explored different migration models, sampling schemes and rates of self-fertilization. We investigated the power and robustness of eight methods to detect loci potentially under selection: three designed to detect genotype-environment correlations and five designed to detect adaptive differentiation (based on FST or similar measures). We show that genotype-environment correlation methods have substantially more power to detect selection than differentiation-based methods but that they generally suffer from high rates of false positives. This effect is exacerbated whenever allele frequencies are correlated, either between populations or within populations. Our results suggest that, when the underlying genetic structure of the data is unknown, a number of robust methods are preferable. Moreover, in the simulated scenario we used, sampling many populations led to better results than sampling many individuals per population. Finally, care should be taken when using methods to identify genotype-environment correlations without correcting for allele frequency autocorrelation because of the risk of spurious signals due to allele frequency correlations between populations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

De Mita S.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | De Mita S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Siol M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Siol M.,CNRS Agroecology Lab
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios.Results: In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library), a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications); two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications.Conclusions: EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL) from its website where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded. © 2012 De Mita and Siol; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Berthouly-Salazar C.,Stellenbosch University | Berthouly-Salazar C.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Hui C.,Stellenbosch University | Blackburn T.M.,UK Institute of Zoology | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2013

Conventional wisdom predicts that sequential founder events will cause genetic diversity to erode in species with expanding geographic ranges, limiting evolutionary potential at the range margin. Here, we show that invasive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in South Africa preserve genetic diversity during range expansion, possibly as a result of frequent long-distance dispersal events. We further show that unfavourable environmental conditions trigger enhanced dispersal, as indicated by signatures of selection detected across the expanding range. This brings genetic variation to the expansion front, counterbalancing the cumulative effects of sequential founding events and optimizing standing genetic diversity and thus evolutionary potential at range margins during spread. Therefore, dispersal strategies should be highlighted as key determinants of the ecological and evolutionary performances of species in novel environments and in response to global environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Scarcelli N.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Barnaud A.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Eiserhardt W.,University of Aarhus | Treier U.A.,University of Aarhus | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Chloroplast DNA sequences are of great interest for population genetics and phylogenetic studies. However, only a small set of markers are commonly used. Most of them have been designed for amplification in a large range of Angiosperms and are located in the Large Single Copy (LSC). Here we developed a new set of 100 primer pairs optimized for amplification in Monocotyledons. Primer pairs amplify coding (exon) and non-coding regions (intron and intergenic spacer). They span the different chloroplast regions: 72 are located in the LSC, 13 in the Small Single Copy (SSC) and 15 in the Inverted Repeat region (IR). Amplification and sequencing were tested in 13 species of Monocotyledons: Dioscorea abyssinica, D. praehensilis, D. rotundata, D. dumetorum, D. bulbifera, Trichopus sempervirens (Dioscoreaceae), Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Astrocaryum scopatum, A. murumuru, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae), Digitaria excilis and Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae). The diversity found in Dioscorea, Digitaria and Pennisetum mainly corresponded to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) while the diversity found in Arecaceae also comprises Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR). We observed that the most variable loci (rps15-ycf1, rpl32-ccsA, ndhF-rpl32, ndhG-ndhI and ccsA) are located in the SSC. Through the analysis of the genetic structure of a wild-cultivated species complex in Dioscorea, we demonstrated that this new set of primers is of great interest for population genetics and we anticipate that it will also be useful for phylogeny and bar-coding studies. © 2011 Scarcelli et al.

Dereeper A.,IRD Montpellier | Bocs S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rouard M.,Bioversity International | Guignon V.,Bioversity International | And 6 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephoragenome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (, an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. © The Author(s) 2014.

Imanishi L.,National University of Quilmes | Vayssieres A.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Franche C.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Bogusz D.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2011

Among infection mechanisms leading to root nodule symbiosis, the intercellular infection pathway is probably the most ancestral but also one of the least characterized. Intercellular infection has been described in Discaria trinervis, an actinorhizal plant belonging to the Rosales order. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying intercellular infection with Frankia bacteria, we set up an efficient genetic transformation protocol for D. trinervis based on Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We showed that composite plants with transgenic roots expressing green fluorescent protein can be specifically and efficiently nodulated by Frankia strain BCU110501. Nitrogen fixation rates and feedback inhibition of nodule formation by nitrogen were similar in control and composite plants. In order to challenge the transformation system, the MtEnod11 promoter, a gene from Medicago truncatula widely used as a marker for early infection-related symbiotic events in model legumes, was introduced in D. trinervis. MtEnod11::GUS expression was related to infection zones in root cortex and in the parenchyma of the developing nodule. The ability to study intercellular infection with molecular tools opens new avenues for understanding the evolution of the infection process in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.

Mirouze M.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Vitte C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

In the past decade, plant biologists and breeders have developed a growing interest in the field of epigenetics, which is defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that cannot be explained by changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic marks can be responsive to the environment, and evolve faster than genetic changes. Therefore, epigenetic diversity may represent an unexplored resource of natural variation that could be used in plant breeding programmes. On the other hand, crop genomes are largely populated with transposable elements (TEs) that are efficiently targeted by epigenetic marks, and part of the epigenetic diversity observed might be explained by TE polymorphisms. Characterizing the degree to which TEs influence epigenetic variation in crops is therefore a major goal to better use epigenetic variation. To date, epigenetic analyses have been mainly focused on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and have provided clues on epigenome features, components that silence pathways, and effects of silencing impairment. But to what extent can Arabidopsis be used as a model for the epigenomics of crops? In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences between the epigenomes of Arabidopsis and crops. We explore the relationship between TEs and epigenomes, focusing on TE silencing control and escape, and the impact of TE mobility on epigenomic variation. Finally, we provide insights into challenges to tackle, and future directions to take in the route towards using epigenetic diversity in plant breeding programmes. © 2014 The Author 2014.

Mirouze M.,University of Geneva | Mirouze M.,CNRS Plant Diversity Adaptation and Development | Paszkowski J.,University of Geneva
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Plant epigenetics has recently gained unprecedented interest, not only as a subject of basic research but also as a possible new source of beneficial traits for plant breeding. We discuss here mechanisms of epigenetic regulation that should be considered when undertaking the latter. Since these mechanisms are responsible for the formation of heritable epigenetic gene variants (epialleles) and also regulate transposons mobility, both aspects could be exploited to broaden plant phenotypic and genetic variation, which could improve long-term plant adaptation to environmental challenges and, thus, increase productivity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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