Fatet A.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Pellicer-Rubio M.-T.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Leboeuf B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011
Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour.Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy.Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Clarke I.J.,Monash University |
Caraty A.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013
Wild and domesticated species display seasonality in reproductive function, controlled predominantly by photoperiod. Seasonal alterations in breeding status are caused by changes in the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that are mediated by upstream neuronal afferents that regulate the GnRH cells. In particular, kisspeptin appears to play a major role in seasonality of reproduction, transducing the feedback effect of gonadal steroids as well as having an independent (nonsteroid dependent) circannual rhythm. A substantial body of data on this issue has been obtained from studies in sheep and hamsters and this is reviewed here in detail. Kisspeptin function is upregulated during the breeding season in sheep, stimulating reproductive function, but contradictory data are found in Siberian and Syrian hamsters. The relative quiescence of kisspeptin cells in the nonbreeding season can be counteracted by administration of the peptide, leading to activation of reproductive function. Although there is a major role for melatonin in the transduction of photoperiod to the reproductive system, kisspeptin cells do not appear to express the melatonin receptor, so the means by which seasonality changes the level of kisspeptin activity remains unknown. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013.
Deleuze S.,University of Liège |
Goudet G.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010
Contents: Under in vitro culture conditions, oxidative modifications of cell components via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent a major culture induced stress. Anti-oxidant systems such as glutathione (GSH) can attenuate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress by scavenging ROS. It has been suggested that GSH content in oocytes may serve as a reservoir protecting the zygote and the early embryos from oxidative damage before genomic activation and de novo GSH synthesis occur. Addition of low molecular weight compounds to culture media, such as cysteamine, can increase GSH levels by increasing cysteine uptake. Quite naturally, effects of supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) media with low molecular weight thiols have been studied in various species. This article reviews the use of cysteamine supplementation for IVM, its effects on maturation rates and further embryo development. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Jouhanneau M.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Cornilleau F.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Keller M.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2014
Testosterone-dependent olfactory signals emitted by male are well known to accelerate female puberty in mice (Vandenbergh effect). However, it remains unclear whether these chemosignals also influence adult expression of male-directed odor preference. Therefore, we exposed female mice to intact or castrated male bedding (vs clean bedding as control) during the peripubertal period (postnatal day (PD) 21-38) and measured male-directed odor preference in adulthood. At PD45 or PD60, females exposed to intact male odors, and thus showing puberty acceleration, preferred to investigate odors from intact males over females or castrated males. Females exposed to castrated male odors did not show puberty acceleration but preferred male (intact or castrated) over female odors. Finally, control females did not show any odor preference when tested at PD45, although a preference for male odors emerged later (PD60). In a second experiment, females that were exposed to intact male odors after pubertal transition (PD36-53) also preferred intact male over castrated male odors. In conclusion, our results indicate that peripubertal exposure to male odors induced early expression of male-directed odor preference regardless of puberty-accelerating effect and that induction of male-directed odor preference is not specific to the peripubertal period. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Dardente H.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2012
Most mammals living at temperate latitudes exhibit marked seasonal variations in reproduction. In long-lived species, it is assumed that timely physiological alternations between a breeding season and a period of sexual rest depend upon the ability of day length (photoperiod) to synchronise an endogenous timing mechanism called the circannual clock. The sheep has been extensively used to characterise the time-measurement mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. Melatonin, secreted only during the night, acts as the endocrine transducer of the photoperiodic message. The present review is concerned with the endocrine mechanisms of seasonal reproduction in sheep and the evidence that long day length and thyroid hormones are mandatory to their proper timing. Recent evidence for a circadian-based molecular mechanism within the pars tuberalis of the pituitary, which ties the short duration melatonin signal reflecting long day length to the hypothalamic increase of triiodothyronine (T3) through a thyroid-stimulating hormone/deiodinase2 paracrine mechanism is presented and evaluated in this context. A parallel is also drawn with the golden hamster, a long-day breeder, aiming to demonstrate that features of seasonality appear to be phylogenetically conserved. Finally, potential mechanisms of T3 action within the hypothalamus/median eminence in relationship to seasonal timing are examined. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Druart X.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2012
Sperm transit in the female tract is a critical event for the success of fertilization. From their deposition in the vagina to final migration in the oviduct, sperm pass through the different compartments of the genital tract in which they encounter different environments. The cervix and the uterotubal junction (UTJ) are two barriers with different relative importance according to the species. The protein composition, the degree of glycosylation and the hydration of the cervical mucus change during the oestrous cycle. Several sperm surface proteins are associated with their migration through the cervical mucus and the UTJ. Data regarding the interaction of sperm with secretions of the epithelial tissue lining the different compartments of the female genital tract during the sperm transit are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the migration of sperm through the cervix. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Dacheux J.-L.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Dacheux F.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Reproduction | Year: 2014
Testicular spermatozoa acquire fertility only after 1 or 2 weeks of transit through the epididymis. At the end of this several meters long epididymal tubule, the male gamete is able to move, capacitate, migrate through the female tract, bind to the egg membrane and fuse to the oocyte to result in a viable embryo. All these sperm properties are acquired after sequential modifications occurring either at the level of the spermatozoon or in the epididymal surroundings. Over the last few decades, significant increases in the understanding of the composition of the male gamete and its surroundings have resulted from the use of new techniques such as genome sequencing, proteomics combined with high-sensitivity mass spectrometry, and gene-knockout approaches. This review reports and discusses the most relevant new results obtained in different species regarding the various cellular processes occurring at the sperm level, in particular, those related to the development of motility and egg binding during epididymal transit. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Ayoub M.A.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Methods in Cell Biology | Year: 2015
Since their discovery, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute one of the most studied proteins leading to important discoveries and perspectives in terms of their biology and implication in physiology and pathophysiology. This is mostly linked to the remarkable advances in the development and application of the biophysical resonance energy transfer (RET)-based approaches, including bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BRET and FRET, respectively). Indeed, BRET and FRET have been extensively applied to study different aspects of GPCR functioning such as their activation and regulation either statically or dynamically, in real-time and intact cells. Consequently, our view on GPCRs has considerably changed opening new challenges for the study of GPCRs in their native tissues in the aim to get more knowledge on how these receptors control the biological responses. Moreover, the technological aspect of this field of research promises further developments for robust and reliable new RET-based assays that may be compatible with high-throughput screening as well as drug discovery programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Dupont J.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Reverchon M.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Bertoldo M.J.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors |
Froment P.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2014
There is extensive evidence that nutrition influences reproductive function in various mammalian species (agricultural animals, rodents and human). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between nutrition, energy metabolism and reproductive function are poorly understood. This review considers nutrient sensors as a molecular link between food molecules and consequences for female and male fertility. It focuses on the roles and the molecular mechanisms of some of the relevant hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, and of energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids and amino acids), in the gonadotropic axis (central nervous system and gonads). A greater understanding of the interactions between nutrition and fertility is required for both better management of the physiological processes and the development of new molecules to prevent or cure metabolic diseases and their consequences for fertility. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Dardente H.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors
Current Biology | Year: 2015
Endogenous long-term timing is a key component of seasonality. Where and how are such rhythms generated? Recent findings pointed to the pituitary pars tuberalis, already implicated in photoperiod responsiveness. Now, a new study provides mechanistic insights which support this hypothesis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.