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Magnaval J.-F.,University Paul Sabatier | Fillaux J.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Fillaux J.,CNRS Pharmacochemistry and Pharmacology for Development | Fabre R.,University Paul Sabatier
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires | Year: 2014

Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthiasis due to the infection of humans with larvae of Toxocara sp. that are ascarid round worms. Only two species, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are recognized so far as agents of the human disease. The laboratory diagnosis of the generalized forms of toxocariasis, namely visceral larva migrans and covert/common toxocariasis, is mostly serological, and relies upon ELISA using Toxo-cara canis excretory-secretory larval antigens. Any positive or border-line result should subsequently be checked by western blotting. Covert/common toxocariasis is mostly a benign frequent infection, so a large majority of infected subjects is asymptomatic or has very few symptoms, and therefore go undiagnosed. This form of toxocariasis usually is self-limiting and cured patients exhibit residual spécifie antibodies, so a positive serodiagnosis can be associated with any infectious or non-infectious disease. Considered apart from the clinical and laboratory context, such a positive result has no diagnostic value and should be only taken into account after the possible causes of any observed syndrome have been ruled out. Unlike what can be done for many other infections, the age of the présence of spécifie IgG cannot be assessed using the level of spécifie IgM. The détection of other classes of immunoglobulins - particularly IgE - or subclasses - IgG3 / IgG4 - or circulating Ag was proven to be unable to discriminate between active infections and the presence of residual antibodies. Currently, the diagnosis of an active covert toxocariasis relies upon indirect arguments, e.g., the presence of otherwise unexplained symptoms along with blood eosinophilia and/or elevated levels of eosinophil cationic protein, a situation which is far from ideal. © 2014 - Elsevier Masson SAS - Tous droits réservés.

Barea C.,University of Navarra | Pabon A.,University of Antioquia | Castillo D.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Zimic M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 7 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

Continuing with our efforts to identify new active compounds against malaria and leishmaniasis, 14 new 3-amino-1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline-2- carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial and antileishmanial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Colombian FCR-3 strain and Leishmania amazonensis strain MHOM/BR/76/LTB-012A. Further computational studies were carried out in order to analyze graphic SAR and ADME properties. The results obtained indicate that compounds with one halogenous group substituted in position 6 and 7 provide an efficient approach for further development of antimalarial and antileishmanial agents. In addition, interesting ADME properties were found. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Festa C.,University of Naples Federico II | De Marino S.,University of Naples Federico II | D'Auria M.V.,University of Naples Federico II | Taglialatela-Scafati O.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

Plakortides R-U, four new polyketide endoperoxides, have been isolated from the marine sponge Plakinastrella mamillaris. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic (1H and 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) and MS analyses and by chemical methods. In addition, a new method for the unambiguous stereochemical elucidation of 3,6-disubstituted 1,2-dioxines, frequently isolated from Plakinidae sponges, is reported. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that plakortide U is endowed with in vitro antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine-resistant strain. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Erpenbeck D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hooper J.N.A.,Biodiversity Program | Bonnard I.,University of Perpignan | Sutcliffe P.,Biodiversity Program | And 8 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2012

Sponges of the family Dysideidae (Dictyoceratida) are renowned for their diversity of secondary metabolites, and its genus Lamellodysidea, particularly Lamellodysidea herbacea, is the most studied taxon biochemically. Despite its importance, the taxonomic status of L. herbacea-whether it is a distinct species or a species complex-has never been assessed. Recent biochemical profiling revealed anti-plasmodial activity of brominated compounds in Lamellodysidea of the Pacific. Here, we present a comparative chemotaxonomic and molecular analysis of selected Dysideidae from the Pacific and the Indian Ocean (New Caledonia, Great Barrier Reef, Fiji, Mayotte, Guam, Palau). We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between the populations and assessed their bioactive (PBDE) compounds in order to unravel the taxonomic status of this commercially important group of sponges and assessed patterns of dispersal and biochemical variation. The molecular phylogeny was based on the internal transcribed ribosomal spacer and compared against a PBDE phylogeny for several specimens. Molecular data revealed a diversity of Indo-Pacific L. herbacea populations, also reflected by different PBDE compound profiles. Molecular and biochemical data also revealed a Lamellodysidea species new to science. Several specimens misidentified as Lamellodysidea were detected based on their position on different clades in the molecular phylogeny and their production of different halogenated compounds (brominated vs. chlorinated). The direct comparison of molecular and biochemical data also provided evidence for the occurrence of a host switch event and support for the theory that abiotic factors, such as sedimentation, affect the chemical constituents produced in L. herbacea. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Houel E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gonzalez G.,CNRS Pharmacochemistry and Pharmacology for Development | Bessiere J.-M.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Montpellier | Odonne G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2015

This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 μg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. © 2015, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

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