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Bailey G.N.,University of York | King G.C.P.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2011

Studies of the impact of physical environment on human evolution usually focus on climate as the main external forcing agent of evolutionary and cultural change. In this paper we focus on changes in the physical character of the landscape driven by geophysical processes as an equally potent factor. Most of the landscapes where finds of early human fossils and artefacts are concentrated are ones that have been subjected to high levels of geological instability, either because of especially active tectonic processes associated with faulting and volcanic activity or because of proximity to coastlines subject to dramatic changes of geographical position and physical character by changes of relative sea level. These processes can have both beneficial effects, creating ecologically attractive conditions for human settlement, and deleterious or disruptive ones, creating barriers to movement, disruption of ecological conditions, or hazards to survival. Both positive and negative factors can have powerful selective effects on human behaviour and patterns of settlement and dispersal. We consider both these aspects of the interaction, develop a framework for the reconstruction and comparison of landscapes and landscape change at a variety of scales, and illustrate this with selected examples drawn from Africa and Arabia. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Staudacher T.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2010

More than one year after the most important eruption ever observed at Piton de la Fournaise in April 2007, a new eruption started in 2008 at Piton de la Fournaise, with three different eruptive phases in September, November and December. They were located within the 340 m deep Dolomieu crater. Due to the steep (dip angle 45-80°) and unstable walls of the new crater formed in April 5, 2007, no measurements in situ of the 2008 eruption had been possible. Only observations from the Dolomieu crater rim and from helicopter were performed, using an infrared camera, a portable rangefinder and numerous photographs. These field observations allowed precise monitoring of the setting up of the lava flows with time. The total erupted volume of lava of the three phases was 2.2 × 106 m3 and the average flow rates ranged between 0.3 and 1 m3 s- 1. Lava temperatures of up to 1150 °C have been measured by an infrared camera. Overall, infrared images of the Dolomieu crater illustrate the control of the eruptive vents by the structure of the April 2007 Dolomieu collapse. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kossobokov V.G.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics
Natural Hazards | Year: 2013

Earthquake professionals have for many decades recognized the benefits to society from reliable earthquake predictions, but uncertainties regarding source initiation, rupture phenomena, and accuracy of both the timing and magnitude of the earthquake occurrence have oftentimes seemed either very difficult or impossible to overcome. The problem is that most of these methods cannot be adequately tested and evaluated either because of (a) lack of a precise definition of "prediction" and/or (b) shortage of data for meaningful statistical verification. This is not the case for the pattern recognition algorithm M8 designed in 1984 for prediction of great, Magnitude 8, earthquakes, hence its name. By 1986, the algorithm was rescaled for applications aimed at smaller magnitude earthquakes, down to M5+ range, and since then it has become a useful tool for systematic monitoring of seismic activity in a number of test seismic regions worldwide. After confirmed predictions of both the 1988 Spitak (Armenia) and the 1989 Loma Prieta (California) earthquakes, a "rigid test" to evaluate the efficiency of the intermediate-term middle-range earthquake prediction technique has been designed. Since 1991, each half-year, the algorithm M8 alone and in combination with its refinement MSc has been applied in a real-time prediction mode to seismicity of the entire Earth, and this test outlines, where possible, the areas in the two approximations where magnitude 8.0+ and 7.5+ earthquakes are most likely to occur before the next update. The results of this truly global 20-year-old experiment are indirect confirmations of the existing common features of both the predictability and the diverse behavior of the Earth's naturally fractal lithosphere. The statistics achieved to date prove (with confidence above 99 %) rather high efficiency of the M8 and M8-MSc predictions limited to intermediate-term middle- and narrow-range accuracy. These statistics support the following general conclusions-(1) precursory seismic patterns do exist; (2) the size of an area where precursory seismic patterns show up is much larger than that of the source zone of the incipient target earthquake; (3) many precursory seismic patterns appear to be similar, even in regions of fundamentally different tectonic environments; and (4) some precursory seismic patterns are analogous to those in advance of extreme catastrophic events in other complex nonlinear systems (e.g., magnetic storms, solar flares, "starquakes", etc.)-that are of high importance for further searches of the improved earthquake forecast/prediction algorithms and methods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Feuillet N.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

At Santorini, active normal faulting controls the emission of volcanic products. Such geometry has implication on seismic activity around the plumbing system during unrest. Static Coulomb stress changes induced by the 2011-2012 inflation within a preexisting NW-SE extensional regional stress field, compatible with fault geometry, increased by more than 0.5 MPa in an ellipsoid-shaped zone beneath the Minoan caldera where almost all earthquakes (96%) have occurred since beginning of unrest. Magmatic processes perturb the regional stress in the caldera where strike-slip rather than normal faulting along NE-SW striking planes are expected. The inflation may have also promoted more distant moderate earthquakes on neighboring faults as the M > 5 January 2012, south of Christiania. Santorini belongs to a set of en echelon NE-SW striking rifts (Milos, Nysiros) oblique to the Aegean arc that may have initiated in the Quaternary due to propagation of the North Anatolian fault into the Southern Aegean Sea. Key Points Active faulting at Santorini rift and link with volcanoes The 2011-2012 inflation has increased the stress on rift bounding faults The seismicity pattern in the Caldera is well explained by the stress increase © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Valet J.-P.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

We carried out several experiments with carbonate-rich and clay-rich sediments that were redeposited in plastic cubes or in 1-meter-long cylindrical tubes with the aim of investigating the sensitivity of the depositional remanent magnetization (DRM) to various environmental and physical parameters. In contrast to previous studies, we did not observe any difference in the DRM acquired with or without saline water for either kind of sediment. Taking advantage of a gelatin that fixes the position of particles in suspension, we were able to measure the magnetization of suspended sediments within water-filled columns and thus to test the degree of alignment of magnetic grains. The magnetization of clay-rich sediments was not far from saturation but the magnetization was considerably reduced after deflocculation because the large flocs that favored alignment of magnetic grains were destroyed by the deflocculant. Similarly, the large flocs found at the bottom of the deposition tubes also reveal an efficient magnetic alignment. In contrast, the weak magnetization of the carbonate-rich sediments with small flocs yielded accurate and well-grouped magnetization directions that were not sensitive to deflocculation. Only a fraction of magnetic grains was mechanically oriented by the field in this case because of the weak net magnetic moments of the grains embedded within small flocs. The DRM was constrained by redeposition in plastic cubes performed without gelatin and with different field intensities. The DRM intensity of the carbonate-rich sediments is linearly related to field strength, which attests to their suitability for studies of relative paleointensity. Tests performed with mud from several stratigraphic levels in different marine sediment cores failed to reveal a significant influence of carbonate content on DRM, which suggests a relatively minor role of lithological changes on records of relative paleointensity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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