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Herbin H.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Pujol O.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Hubert P.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Hubert P.,CNRS Atmospheric and Combustion Chemistry Laboratory | Petitprez D.,CNRS Atmospheric and Combustion Chemistry Laboratory
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2017

The knowledge of aerosol complex refractive indices on wide spectral range with high spectral resolution is important for many research fields and applications. Various combinations of experimental/theoretical/numerical approaches have been employed to determine the optical indices of aerosol particles. However, each approach has its own advantages and limitations that restrict its generalization. This article is first part of a work aimed at proposing a new technique for determining the optical constants of aerosols. Experimentally, the method is based on recording transmittance spectra of an aerosol flow from thermal infrared to UV-visible combined with the size distribution measurements. Herein, we present the theoretical and numerical bases of the algorithm developed to retrieve the imaginary and real parts of refractive indices. This model associates the Mie theory, the single subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations, and the optimal estimation method with an iterative process. In order to quantify the capabilities of the algorithm to retrieve complex refractive indices, inverse calculations are performed from simulated extinction spectra of Quartz particles whose some of optical properties are available in the literature. We have detailed each step of the procedure and performed some comparisons with the most currently employed methods. The impact of experimental accuracy and numerical simulation are investigated in terms of errors, and uncertainties on the retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex optical index. © 2017.


Gayet J.-F.,University Blaise Pascal | Shcherbakov V.,University Blaise Pascal | Shcherbakov V.,Institut Universitaire de France | Voigt C.,German Aerospace Center | And 9 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

A contrail from a large-body A380 aircraft at cruise in the humid upper troposphere has been probed with in-situ instruments onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon. The contrail was sampled during 700 s measurement time at contrail ages of about 1-4 min. The contrail was in the vortex regime during which the primary wake vortices were sinking 270 m below the A380 flight level while the secondary wake remained above. Contrail properties were sampled separately in the primary wake at 90 and 115 s contrail age and nearly continously in the secondary wake at contrail ages from 70 s to 220 s. The scattering phase functions of the contrail particles were measured with a polar nephelometer. The asymmetry parameter derived from these data is used to distinguish between quasi-spherical and aspherical ice particles. In the primary wake, quasi-spherical ice particles were found with concentrations up to 160 cm-3, mean effective diameter Deff of 3.7 μm, maximum extinction of 7.0 km-1, and ice water content (IWC) of 3 mg m-3 at slightly ice-subsaturated conditions. The secondary and primary wakes were separated by an almost particle-free wake vortex gap. The secondary wake contained clearly aspherical contrail ice particles with mean Deff of 4.8 μm, mean (maximum) concentration, extinction, and IWC of 80 (350) cm-3, 1.6 (5.0) km-1, and 2.5 (10) mg m-3, respectively, at conditions apparently above ice-saturation. The asymmetry parameter in the secondary wake decreased with contrail age from 0.87 to 0.80 on average indicating a preferential aspherical ice crystal growth. A retrieval of ice particle habit and size with an inversion code shows that the number fraction of aspherical ice crystals increased from 2% initially to 56% at 4 min contrail age. The observed crystal size and habit differences in the primary and secondary wakes of an up to 4 min old contrail are of interest for understanding ice crystal growth in contrails and their climate impact. Aspherical contrail ice particles cause less radiative forcing than spherical ones. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Penide G.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Kumar V.V.,Monash University | Protat A.,Monash University | May P.T.,Monash University
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2013

C-band polarimetric radar measurements spanning two wet seasons are used to study the effects of the large-scale environment on the statistical properties of stratiform and convective rainfall around Darwin, Australia. The rainfall physical properties presented herein are the reflectivity fields, daily rainfall accumulations and raining area, rain rates, and drop size distribution (DSD) parameters (median volume diameter and "normalized" intercept parameter). Each of these properties is then analyzed according to five different atmospheric regimes and further separated into stratiform or convective rain categories following a DSDbased approach. The regimes, objectively identified by radiosonde thermodynamic and wind measurements, represent typical wet-season atmospheric conditions: the active monsoon regime, the "break" periods, the "buildup" regime, the trade wind regime, and a mixture of inactive/break periods. The large-scale context is found to strongly modulate rainfall and cloud microphysical properties. For example, during the active monsoon regime, the daily rain accumulation is higher than in the other regimes, while this regime is associated with the lowest rain rates. Precipitation in this active monsoon regime is found to be widespread and mainly composed of small particles in high concentration compared to the other regimes. Vertical profiles of reflectivity and DSD parameters suggest that warm rain processes are dominant during this regime. In contrast, rainfall properties in the drier regimes (trade wind/buildup regimes) are mostly of continental origin, with rain rates higher than in the moister regimes. In these drier regimes, precipitation is mainly formed of large raindrops in relatively low concentration due to a larger contribution of the ice microphysical processes on the rainfall formation. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.


Martiny N.,CNRS Biogeosciences Laboratory | Chiapello I.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Recently, mineral dust has been suspected to be one of the important environmental risk factor for meningitis epidemics in West Africa. The current study is one of the first which relies on long-term robust aerosol measurements in the Sahel region to investigate the possible impact of mineral dust on meningitis cases (incidence). Sunphotometer measurements, which allow to derive aerosol and humidity parameters, i.e., aerosol optical thickness, Angström coefficient, and precipitable water, are combined with quantitative epidemiological data in Niger and Mali over the 2004-2009 AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program period. We analyse how the extremely high aerosol loads in this region may influence both the calendar (onset, peaks, end) and the intensity of meningitis. We highlight three distinct periods: (i) from November to December, beginning of the dry season, humidity is weak, there is no dust and no meningitis cases; (ii) from January to April, humidity is still weak, but high dust loads occur in the atmosphere and this is the meningitis season; (iii) from May to October, humidity is high and there is no meningitis anymore, in presence of dust or not, which flow anyway in higher altitudes. More specifically, the onset of the meningitis season is tightly related to mineral dust flowing close to the surface at the very beginning of the year. During the dry, and the most dusty season period, from February to April, each meningitis peak is preceded by a dust peak, with a 0-2 week lead-time. The importance (duration, intensity) of these meningitis peaks seems to be related to that of dust, suggesting that a cumulative effect in dust events may be important for the meningitis incidence. This is not the case for humidity, confirming the special contribution of dust at this period of the year. The end of the meningitis season, in May, coincides with a change in humidity conditions related to the West African Monsoon. These results, which are interpreted in the context of recent independent epidemiological studies on meningitis highlight, (i) the particular role of dust during the dry season (low humidity conditions) on the onset and the intra-seasonal variability of the meningitis season; (ii) the specific role of high humidity at the end of the meningitis season in two Sahelian countries particularly affected by the disease. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Boyouk N.,University of Lille Nord de France | Boyouk N.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Leon J.-F.,University of Lille Nord de France | Leon J.-F.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between columnar aerosol optical thickness and ground-level aerosol mass. A set of Sun photometer, elastic backscattering lidar and TEOM measurements were acquired during April 2007 in Lille, France. The PM2.5 in the mixed boundary layer is estimated using the lidar signal, aerosol optical thickness, or columnar integrated Sun photometer size distribution and compared to the ground-level station measurements. The lidar signal recorded in the lowest level (240 m) is well correlated to the PM2.5 (R2 = 0.84). We also show that the correlation between AOT-derived and measured PM2.5 is significantly improved when considering the mixed boundary layer height derived from the lidar. The use of the Sun photometer aerosol fine fraction volume does not improve the correlation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cole B.H.,Texas A&M University | Yang P.,Texas A&M University | Baum B.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Riedi J.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

Insufficient knowledge of the habit distribution and the degree of surface roughness of ice crystals within ice clouds is a source of uncertainty in the forward light scattering and radiative transfer simulations of ice clouds used in downstream applications. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection-5 ice microphysical model presumes a mixture of various ice crystal shapes with smooth facets, except for the compact aggregate of columns for which a severely rough condition is assumed. When compared with Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL) polarized reflection data, simulations of polarized reflectance using smooth particles show a poor fit to the measurements, whereas very rough-faceted particles provide an improved fit to the polarized reflectance. In this study a new microphysical model based on a mixture of nine different ice crystal habits with severely roughened facets is developed. Simulated polarized reflectance using the new ice habit distribution is calculated using a vector adding-doubling radiative transfer model, and the simulations closely agree with the polarized reflectance observed by PARASOL. The new general habit mixture is also tested using a spherical albedo differences analysis, and surface roughening is found to improve the consistency of multiangular observations. These results are consistent with previous studies that have used polarized reflection data. It is suggested that an ice model incorporating an ensemble of different habits with severely roughened surfaces would potentially be an adequate choice for global ice cloud retrievals. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.


Cole B.H.,Texas A&M University | Yang P.,Texas A&M University | Baum B.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Riedi J.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | C.-Labonnote L.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

Ice clouds are an important element in the radiative balance of the earth's climate system, but their microphysical and optical properties still are not well constrained, especially ice particle habit and the degree of particle surface roughness. In situ observations have revealed common ice particle habits and evidence for surface roughness, but these observations are limited. An alternative is to infer the ice particle shape and surface roughness from satellite observations of polarized reflectivity since they are sensitive to both particle shape and degree of surface roughness. In this study an adding-doubling radiative transfer code is used to simulate polarized reflectivity for nine different ice habits and one habit mixture, along with 17 distinct levels of the surface roughness. A lookup table (LUT) is constructed from the simulation results and used to infer shape and surface roughness from PARASOL satellite polarized reflectivity data over the ocean. Globally, the retrievals yield a compact aggregate of columns as the most commonly retrieved ice habit. Analysis of PARASOL data from the tropics results in slightly more aggregates than in midlatitude or polar regions. Some level of surface roughness is inferred in nearly 70% of PARASOL data, with mean and median roughness near Ï Combining double low line 0.2 and 0.15, respectively. Tropical region analyses have 20% more pixels retrieved with particle surface roughness than in midlatitude or polar regions. The global asymmetry parameter inferred at a wavelength of 0.865 Î1/4m has a mean value of 0.77 and a median value of 0.75. © 2014 Author(s).


Zeng S.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Parol F.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Riedi J.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Cornet C.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Thieuleux F.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory
Journal of Climate | Year: 2011

The Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from aLidar (PARASOL) and Aqua are two satellites on sun-synchronous orbits in theA-Train constellation. Aboard these two platforms, the Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provide quasi simultaneous and coincident observations of cloud properties. The similar orbits but different detecting characteristics of these two sensors call for a comparison between the derived datasets to identify and quantify potential uncertainties in retrieved cloud properties. To focus on the differences due to different sensor spatial resolution and coverage, while minimizing sampling and weighting issues, the authors have recomputed monthly statistics directly from the respective official level-2 products. The authors have developed a joint dataset that contains bothPOLDERand MODIS level-2 cloud products collocated on a common sinusoidal grid. The authors have then computed and analyzed monthly statistics of cloud fractions corresponding either to the total cloud cover or to the "retrieved "cloud fraction for which cloud optical properties are derived. These simple yet crucial cloud statistics need to be clearly understood to allow further comparison work of the other cloud parameters. From this study, it is demonstrated that on average POLDER and MODIS datasets capture correctly the main characteristics of global cloud cover and provide similar spatial distributions and temporal variations. However, each sensor has its own advantages and weaknesses in discriminating between clear and cloudy skies in particular situations. Also it is shown that significant differences exist between the MODIS total cloud fraction (day mean) and the "retrieved" cloud fraction (combined mean). This study found a global negative difference of about 10% between POLDER and MODIS day-mean cloud fraction. On the contrary, a global positive difference of about 10% exists between POLDER and MODIS combined-mean cloud fraction. These statistical biases show both global and regional distributions that can be driven by sensors characteristics, environmental factors, and also carry potential information on cloud cover structure. These results provide information on the quality of cloud cover derived from POLDER and MODIS and should be taken into account for the use of other cloud products. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.


Cornet C.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | C-Labonnote L.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Szczap F.,CNRS Laboratory of Physics and Meteorology
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2010

A polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model for the computation of radiative transfer inside three-dimensional inhomogeneous mediums is described. This code is based on Monte Carlo methods and takes into account the polarization state of the light. Specificities introduced by such consideration are presented. After validation of the model by comparisons with adding-doubling computations, examples of reflectances simulated from a synthetic inhomogeneous cirrus cloud are analyzed and compared with reflectances obtained with the classical assumption of a plane parallel homogeneous cloud (1D approximation). As polarized reflectance is known to saturate for optical thickness of about 3, one could think that they should be less sensitive to 3D effects than total reflectances. However, at high spatial resolution (80 m), values of polarized reflectances much higher than the ones predicted by the 1D theory can be reached. The study of the reflectances of a step cloud shows that these large values are the results of illumination and shadowing effects similar to those often observed on total reflectances. In addition, we show that for larger spatial resolution (10 km), the so-called plane-parallel bias leads to a non-negligible overestimation of the polarized reflectances of about 7-8%. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Compiegne M.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | C-Labonnote L.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory | Dubuisson P.,CNRS Optical Atmosphere Laboratory
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

While several papers deal with effects of truncation techniques on the total radiance there is a lack of such studies concerning polarized radiance. We present our first results obtained in studying the impact of phase matrix truncation on the accuracy of polarized radiance. Like for the total radiance, the single scattering (TMS) correction is crucial and efficient in case of the polarized radiance. We show that there is a systematic error on polarized radiance that increases with truncation factor and optical depth. This error is not induced by the restitution of the phase matrix angular dependency as a function of the number of terms in the Legendre polynomials expansion. Given a truncation factor, this error reaches a maximum asymptotic value for optical depth corresponding to the saturation of polarization. For the cloud droplet that we use in our study, the maximum error is 4.5% at λ=412nm. It raises the question of whether the condition for scale invariance of the scalar radiative transfer equation (RTE) can apply to vector RTE. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

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