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Abounit S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Bousset L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Loria F.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Zhu S.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 5 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2016

Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease are characterized by the pathological deposition of misfolded α-synuclein aggregates into inclusions throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. Mounting evidence suggests that intercellular propagation of α-synuclein aggregates may contribute to the neuropathology; however, the mechanism by which spread occurs is not fully understood. By using quantitative fluorescence microscopy with co-cultured neurons, here we show that α-synuclein fibrils efficiently transfer from donor to acceptor cells through tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) inside lysosomal vesicles. Following transfer through TNTs, α-synuclein fibrils are able to seed soluble α-synuclein aggregation in the cytosol of acceptor cells. We propose that donor cells overloaded with α-synuclein aggregates in lysosomes dispose of this material by hijacking TNT-mediated intercellular trafficking. Our findings thus reveal a possible novel role of TNTs and lysosomes in the progression of synucleinopathies. © 2016 EMBO.


Kabani M.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Melki R.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute
Current Genetics | Year: 2015

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ensemble of structurally and functionally diverse cytoplasmic proteins has the ability to form self-perpetuating protein aggregates (e.g. prions) which are the vectors of heritable non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Whether harboring these prions is deleterious—akin to mammalian degenerative disorders—or beneficial—as epigenetic modifiers of gene expression—for yeasts has been intensely debated and strong arguments were made in support of both views. We recently reported that the yeast prion protein Sup35p is exported via extracellular vesicles (EV), both in its soluble and aggregated infectious states. Herein, we discuss the possible implications of this observation and propose several hypotheses regarding the roles of EV in both vertical and horizontal propagation of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ yeast prions. © 2015 The Author(s)


Peelaerts W.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bousset L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Van Der Perren A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Moskalyuk A.,University of Antwerp | And 8 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Misfolded protein aggregates represent a continuum with overlapping features in neurodegenerative diseases, but differences in protein components and affected brain regions. The molecular hallmark of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy are megadalton α-synuclein-rich deposits suggestive of one molecular event causing distinct disease phenotypes. Glial α-synuclein (α-SYN) filamentous deposits are prominent in multiple system atrophy and neuronal α-SYN inclusions are found in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The discovery of α-SYN assemblies with different structural characteristics or 'strains' has led to the hypothesis that strains could account for the different clinico-pathological traits within synucleinopathies. In this study we show that α-SYN strain conformation and seeding propensity lead to distinct histopathological and behavioural phenotypes. We assess the properties of structurally well-defined α-SYN assemblies (oligomers, ribbons and fibrils) after injection in rat brain. We prove that α-SYN strains amplify in vivo. Fibrils seem to be the major toxic strain, resulting in progressive motor impairment and cell death, whereas ribbons cause a distinct histopathological phenotype displaying Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy traits. Additionally, we show that α-SYN assemblies cross the blood-brain barrier and distribute to the central nervous system after intravenous injection. Our results demonstrate that distinct α-SYN strains display differential seeding capacities, inducing strain-specific pathology and neurotoxic phenotypes. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Monsellier E.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Redeker V.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Ruiz-Arlandis G.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Bousset L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Melki R.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

The aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing proteins is at the origin of nine neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones prevent the aggregation of polyQ-containing proteins. The exact mechanism by which they interact with polyQ-containing, aggregation-prone proteins and interfere with their assembly is unknown. Here we dissect the mechanism of interaction between a huntingtin exon 1 fragment of increasing polyQ lengths (HttEx1Qn), the aggregation of which is tightly associated with Huntington's disease, and molecular chaperone Hsc70. We show that Hsc70, together with its Hsp40 co-chaperones, inhibits HttEx1Qn aggregation and modifies the structural, seeding, and infectious properties of the resulting fibrils in a polyQ-independent manner. We demonstrate that Hsc70 binds the 17-residue-long N-terminal flank of HttEx1Qn, and we map Hsc70-HttEx1Qn surface interfaces at the residue level. Finally, we show that this interaction competes with homotypic interactions between the N termini of different HttEx1Qn molecules that trigger the aggregation process. Our results lay the foundations of future therapeutic strategies targeting huntingtin aggregation in Huntington disease. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Melki R.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute
Journal of Parkinson's Disease | Year: 2015

Misfolded protein aggregates are the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The main protein constituent of these aggregates and the regions within the brain that are affected differ from one neurodegenerative disorder to another. A plethora of reports suggest that distinct diseases have in common the ability of protein aggregates to spread and amplify within the central nervous system. This review summarizes briefly what is known about the nature of the protein aggregates that are infectious and the reason they are toxic to cells. The chameleon property of polypeptides which aggregation into distinct high-molecular weight assemblies is associated to different diseases, in particular, that of alpha-synuclein which aggregation is the hallmark of distinct synucleinopathies, is discussed. Finally, strategies targeting the formation and propagation of structurally distinct alpha-synuclein assemblies associated to different synucleinopathies are presented and their therapeutic and diagnostic potential is discussed. © 2015-IOS Press and the authors.


Brahic M.,Stanford University | Bousset L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Bieri G.,Stanford University | Melki R.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Gitler A.D.,Stanford University
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2016

Accruing evidence suggests that prion-like behavior of fibrillar forms of α-synuclein, β-amyloid peptide and mutant huntingtin are responsible for the spread of the lesions that characterize Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease, respectively. It is unknown whether these distinct protein assemblies are transported within and between neurons by similar or distinct mechanisms. It is also unclear if neuronal death or injury is required for neuron-to-neuron transfer. To address these questions, we used mouse primary cortical neurons grown in microfluidic devices to measure the amounts of α-synuclein, Aβ42 and HTTExon1 fibrils transported by axons in both directions (anterograde and retrograde), as well as to examine the mechanism of their release from axons after anterograde transport. We observed that the three fibrils were transported in both anterograde and retrograde directions but with strikingly different efficiencies. The amount of Aβ42 fibrils transported was ten times higher than that of the other two fibrils. HTTExon1 was efficiently transported in the retrograde direction but only marginally in the anterograde direction. Finally, using neurons from two distinct mutant mouse strains whose axons are highly resistant to neurodegeneration (WldS and Sarm1−/−), we found that the three different fibrils were secreted by axons after anterograde transport, in the absence of axonal lysis, indicating that trans-neuronal spread can occur in intact healthy neurons. In summary, fibrils of α-synuclein, Aβ42 and HTTExon1 are all transported in axons but in directions and amounts that are specific of each fibril. After anterograde transport, the three fibrils were secreted in the medium in the absence of axon lysis. Continuous secretion could play an important role in the spread of pathology between neurons but may be amenable to pharmacological intervention. © 2016, The Author(s).


Bouvier J.,Karolinska Institutet | Bouvier J.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Caggiano V.,Karolinska Institutet | Leiras R.,Karolinska Institutet | And 5 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Summary The episodic nature of locomotion is thought to be controlled by descending inputs from the brainstem. Most studies have largely attributed this control to initiating excitatory signals, but little is known about putative commands that may specifically determine locomotor offset. To link identifiable brainstem populations to a potential locomotor stop signal, we used developmental genetics and considered a discrete neuronal population in the reticular formation: the V2a neurons. We find that those neurons constitute a major excitatory pathway to locomotor areas of the ventral spinal cord. Selective activation of V2a neurons of the rostral medulla stops ongoing locomotor activity, owing to an inhibition of premotor locomotor networks in the spinal cord. Moreover, inactivation of such neurons decreases spontaneous stopping in vivo. Therefore, the V2a "stop neurons" represent a glutamatergic descending pathway that favors immobility and may thus help control the episodic nature of locomotion. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Ruiz-Arlandis G.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Pieri L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Bousset L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Melki R.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2016

Aims: The aggregation of Huntingtin (HTT) protein and of its moiety encoded by its Exon1 (HTTExon1) into fibrillar structures inside neurons is the molecular hallmark of Huntington's disease. Prion-like transmission of these aggregates between cells has been demonstrated. The cell-to-cell transmission mechanisms of these protein aggregates and the susceptibility of different kinds of neuronal cells to these toxic assemblies still need assessment. Methods: Here, we documented the binding to and internalization by differentiated and undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells of exogenous fibrillar HTTExon1 and polyglutamine (polyQ) polypeptides containing the same number of glutamines. We assessed the contribution of endocytosis to fibrillar HTTExon1 uptake, their intracellular localization and fate. Results: We observed that undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells were more susceptible to fibrillar HTTExon1 and polyQ than their differentiated counterparts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exogenous HTTExon1 aggregates are mainly taken up by endocytosis and directed to lysosomal compartments in both mitotic and quiescent cells. Conclusions: These data suggest that the rates of endocytic processes that differ in mitotic and quiescent cells strongly impact the uptake of exogenous HTTExon1 and polyQ fibrils. This may be either the consequence of distinct metabolisms or distributions of specific protein partners for amyloid-like assemblies at the surface of highly dividing versus quiescent cells. Our results highlight the importance of endocytic processes in the internalization of exogenous HTTExon1 fibrils and suggest that a proportion of those assemblies reach the cytosol where they can amplify by recruiting the endogenous protein after escaping, by yet an unknown process, from the endo-lysosomal compartments. © 2016 British Neuropathological Society.


Hamon A.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Roger J.E.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Yang X.-J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Perron M.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2016

Retinal dystrophies are a major cause of blindness for which there are currently no curative treatments. Transplantation of stem cell-derived neuronal progenitors to replace lost cells has been widely investigated as a therapeutic option. Another promising strategy would be to trigger self-repair mechanisms in patients, through the recruitment of endogenous cells with stemness properties. Accumulating evidence in the past 15 year0s has revealed that several retinal cell types possess neurogenic potential, thus opening new avenues for regenerative medicine. Among them, Müller glial cells have been shown to be able to undergo a reprogramming process to re-acquire a stem/progenitor state, allowing them to proliferate and generate new neurons for repair following retinal damages. Although Müller cell-dependent spontaneous regeneration is remarkable in some species such as the fish, it is extremely limited and ineffective in mammals. Understanding the cellular events and molecular mechanisms underlying Müller cell activities in species endowed with regenerative capacities could provide knowledge to unlock the restricted potential of their mammalian counterparts. In this context, the present review provides an overview of Müller cell responses to injury across vertebrate model systems and summarizes recent advances in this rapidly evolving field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Shrivastava A.N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Redeker V.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | Fritz N.,Karolinska Institutet | Pieri L.,CNRS Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute | And 9 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2015

Extracellular α-synuclein (α-syn) assemblies can be up-taken by neurons; however, their interaction with the plasma membrane and proteins has not been studied specifically. Here we demonstrate that α-syn assemblies form clusters within the plasma membrane of neurons. Using a proteomic-based approach, we identify the α3-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) as a cell surface partner of α-syn assemblies. The interaction strength depended on the state of α-syn, fibrils being the strongest, oligomers weak, and monomers none. Mutations within the neuron-specific α3-subunit are linked to rapid-onset dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). We show that freely diffusing α3-NKA are trapped within α-syn clusters resulting in α3-NKA redistribution and formation of larger nanoclusters. This creates regions within the plasma membrane with reduced local densities of α3-NKA, thereby decreasing the efficiency of Na+ extrusion following stimulus. Thus, interactions of α3-NKA with extracellular α-syn assemblies reduce its pumping activity as its mutations in RDP/AHC. Synopsis The α3-Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) pump is uniformly distributed on the plasma membrane and maintains Na+ gradient in neurons. Exogenous α-synuclein assemblies interact with the plasma membrane, diffuse and form clusters. The α3-NKA pumps get trapped within these clusters altering their spatial organization and ultimately reducing the Na+ extrusion efficiency. α-synuclein clusters within neuronal plasma membrane. The sodium pump α3-Na+/K+-ATPase is trapped within α-synuclein clusters. α-synuclein reduces α3-NKA-dependent Na+ extrusion from neurons. Reduced Na+ extrusion may contribute to Parkinson associated symptoms and dystonia/hemiplegia. Oligomeric and fibrillar forms of the Parkinson's disease linked protein α-synuclein interact with the α3-NKA sodium potassium pump to perturb ion currents in neurons. © 2015 The Authors.

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