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Pierre Fouassier J.,Upper Alsace University | Lalevee J.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

Three-component photoinitiating systems of radical and cationic polymerization are reviewed. The involved mechanisms are described. The design of new promising systems for the photopolymerization of low viscosity monomers under air and low intensity light sources (household lamps, LED bulbs, the sun, LEDs, diode lasers) in the 350-700 nm wavelength range suggest novel applications for Radiation Curing, Laser Imaging, optics, holography or medicine areas. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Anselme K.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

In this paper, some examples from the literature or from my own experience will be given to illustrate the influence of surface topography and surface chemistry at the nano-and micro-scale on the cell and tissue response. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011. Source

Gibot P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Vidal L.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science
Journal of the European Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

Nanosized chromium (Cr2O3) oxide was prepared by the common thermal decomposition of Cr(NO3)3·9H2O chromium (III) nitrate nonahydrate. Prior to the heat treatment at 550 °C, the commercial reagent was first dissolved in a colloidal silica solution and then dried at a low temperature to slowly evaporate the aqueous solvent. The SiO2/Cr(NO3)3·9H2O weight ratio (R) was changed from 0 to 2. The various Cr2O3 powders were characterized by XRD, FTIR, nitrogen adsorption, SEM and TEM techniques. A maximum specific surface area of 113 m2 g-1, associated with a pore volume of 0.72 cm3 g-1, was obtained for the Cr2O3 powder prepared with R = 2. These pristine chromium oxide nanoparticles, with a slightly sintered sphere-shaped morphology, exhibited a 10 nm particle size with a monocrystalline character as demonstrated by the TEM and XRD correlation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ghimbeu C.M.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science
Nature Materials | Year: 2016

Despite kerogen’s importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen’s chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental–simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen’s nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models’ strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen’s maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group Source

Zhao T.,National University of Ireland | Zheng Y.,National University of Ireland | Poly J.,CNRS Mulhouse Institute of Materials Science | Wang W.,National University of Ireland
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The three-dimensional structures of hyperbranched materials have made them attractive in many important applications. However, the preparation of hyperbranched materials remains challenging. The hyperbranched materials from addition polymerization have gained attention, but are still confined to only a low level of branching and often low yield. Moreover, the complication of synthesis only allows a few specialized monomers and inimers to be used. Here we report a 'Vinyl Oligomer Combination' strategy; a versatile approach that overcomes these difficulties and allows facile synthesis of highly branched polymeric materials from readily available multi-vinyl monomers, which have long been considered as formidable starting materials in addition polymerization. We report the alteration of the growth manner of polymerization by controlling the kinetic chain length, together with the manipulation of chain growth conditions, to achieve veritable hyperbranched materials, which possess nearly 70% branch ratios as well as numerous vinyl functional groups. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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