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Perdereau E.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | Bagneres A.-G.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | Bankhead-Dronnet S.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Dupont S.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology

Biological invasions are recognized as a major threat to both natural and managed ecosystems. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses can provide information about the geographical origins and patterns of introduction and explain the causes and mechanisms by which introduced species have become successful invaders. Reticulitermes flavipes is a North American subterranean termite that has been introduced into several areas, including France where introduced populations have become invasive. To identify likely source populations in the USA and to compare the genetic diversity of both native and introduced populations, an extensive molecular genetic study was undertaken using the COII region of mtDNA and 15 microsatellite loci. Our results showed that native northern US populations appeared well differentiated from those of the southern part of the US range. Phylogenetic analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear markers showed that French populations probably originated from southeastern US populations, and more specifically from Louisiana. All of the mtDNA haplotypes shared between the United States and France were found in Louisiana. Compared to native populations in Louisiana, French populations show lower genetic diversity at both mtDNA and microsatellite markers. These findings are discussed along with the invasion routes of R. flavipes as well as the possible mechanisms by which French populations have evolved after their introduction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Hulle M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Coeur d'Acier A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bankhead-Dronnet S.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Harrington R.,Rothamsted Research
Comptes Rendus - Biologies

Global warming is one of the principal challenges facing insects worldwide. It affects individual species and interactions between species directly through effects on their physiology and indirectly through effects on their habitat. Aphids are particularly sensitive to temperature changes due to certain specific biological features of this group. Effects on individuals have repercussions for aphid diversity and population dynamics. At a pan- European scale, the EXAMINE observation network has provided evidence for an increase in the number of aphid species present over the last 30 years and for earlier spring flights. We review these results and provide a review of the principal effects of global warming on aphid communities. © 2010 Académie des sciences. Source

Vala J.-C.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Williams C.D.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth

Only six species of Sciomyzidae Fallén, 1820, with 106 individuals, have been identified from Malaise traps installed during the ATBI at sites near 1400 and 2000 m in the Mercantour National Park, France. They belong to the subfamilies Phaeomyiinae Steyskal, 1965, represented by Pelidnoptera nigripennis (Fabricius, 1794) and the Sciomyzinae Schiner, 1862 for the other five species. The species are essentially characteristic of open, dry or wet meadows and forest macrohabitats. Pelidnoptera nigripennis larvae are parasitoids of millipedes, while the others are parasitoids or predators of terrestrial snails and slugs. The list given here includes three species (one Tetanocerini and two Sciomyzini Cresson, 1920) already reported from the National Park, where we captured eight specimens of one of them, subsequent to the ATBI period of study. Dichetophora finlandica Verbeke, 1964 is cited for the first time in the Park. The altitudinal distribution of the species is discussed. © Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. Source

Deguines N.,CNRS Science Conservation Center | Jono C.,CNRS Science Conservation Center | Baude M.,University of Bristol | Baude M.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment

Unprecedented growth in human populations has required the intensification of agriculture to enhance crop productivity, but this was achieved at a major cost to biodiversity. There is abundant local-scale evidence that both pollinator diversity and pollination services decrease with increasing agricultural intensification. This raises concerns regarding food security, as two-thirds of the world's major food crops are pollinator-dependent. Whether such local findings scale up and affect crop production over larger scales is still being debated. Here, we analyzed a country-wide dataset of the 54 major crops in France produced over the past two decades and found that benefits of agricultural intensification decrease with increasing pollinator dependence, to the extent that intensification failed to increase the yield of pollinator-dependent crops and decreased the stability of their yield over time. This indicates that benefits from agricultural intensification may be offset by reductions in pollination services, and supports the need for an ecological intensification of agriculture through optimization of ecosystem services. © The Ecological Society of America. Source

Salle A.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Nageleisen L.-M.,Ministere de lAgriculture | Lieutier F.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology
Forest Ecology and Management

Oak declines are multifactorial processes in which bark and wood boring (BWB) beetles can act as major inciting factors, killing the weakened trees. Nonetheless, the current knowledge on the biology, ecology of these species is scattered and no efficient management strategies are currently available. Based on the existing literature and field observations from the French forest health service, we firstly identified the prominent BWB species implicated in oak declines in Europe. Secondly we performed a state of the art on the biology and ecology of these species, with a particular reference to the interactions with their host trees. Finally considerations were made on how climate change could affect these interactions. Six species, namely Agrilus biguttatus, Coraebus florentinus, Coraebus undatus, Cerambyx cerdo, Platypus cylindrus and Scolytus intricatus are frequently implicated in oak declines in Europe. The interactions with their hosts regarding selection and resistance are generally poorly known. Likewise, these beetles are associated with a diverse microbial community, which composition and implication in the biology of insects and decline processes is unclear in most cases. Climate change will probably increase the frequency and distribution of oak declines in Europe. It will also likely modify the interactions between oaks and these beetles by promoting contributing factors of decline, modifying directly and indirectly host resistance, phenology and attractiveness, and beetles development, distribution and interaction with microorganisms. Evidences point out that the increase in temperature has already favored the distribution and development of C. florentinus and could enhance the development of other species. Potential research prospects are proposed, aiming at acquiring missing basic knowledge and improving the currently limited management strategies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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