Marmoret L.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation
Journal of Building Physics | Year: 2017
There is a need for experimental determination of thermophysical properties to bridge the gap between theoretically prediction and performance of insulating materials in buildings. This investigation concerns the study of hydrothermal performance of glass wool, a widely used insulation on the world market. It has been shown the low sensitivity of glass wool to water vapor, low hygroscopicity, and low permeability. On the other hand, the liquid permeability of glass wool is important. Obviously, the presence of liquid is generally accidental and should be prevented by good workmanship. Thermal characterization (conductivity and diffusivity) by hot disk, a transient technique, has been determined as a function of water. The effect of vapor phase water on thermal properties is not significant. Thermal conductivity increases by a factor 2 when liquid water is present in the insulation. It is shown that the hot disk method is useful to determine thermal characterization of insulation materials. Variations of thermal conductivity with water content have been explained from hydric characterization. © 2017 SAGE Publications.
Guillemer C.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Clavel M.,École Centrale Paris |
Cailletaud G.,MINES ParisTech Center of materials
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2011
The present study aims at determining the influence of cyclic straining on the behavior of pure extruded magnesium. For this purpose, tensile, compressive and cyclic tests are performed (small plastic strains are applied (Δp/2 = 0.1% and 0.4%). Deformation mechanisms (slip and twin systems) have been observed by TEM and the different critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) have been determined. Based on microscopic observations, a crystal-plasticity-based constitutive model has been developed. The asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings mainly results from the activation of hard slip systems in tension (such as 〈a〉 pyramidal and prismatic and 〈c + a〉 pyramidal glides) and twinning in compression. It is shown that basal slip is very easy to activate even for small Schmid factors. Numerical simulations reveal that untwinning in tension subsequent to compression must be considered to correctly fit the experimental S-shaped hysteresis curves. TEM observations indicate also intense secondary slips or twins inside the mother twins under cyclic conditions, so that twinning in compression and dislocation glide in tension are affected by cycling. The polycrystalline model allows to predict slip activities and twin volume fraction evolutions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Le Ngoc Huyen T.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Remond C.,CNRS Agricultural Resources Fragmentation and Environment |
Dheilly R.M.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Chabbert B.,CNRS Agricultural Resources Fragmentation and Environment
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010
The chemical composition of the whole aerial biomass and isolated organs of Miscanthus x giganteus was examined for saccharification into fermentable sugars at early and late harvesting dates. Delayed harvest was mainly related to increased amounts of cell wall and ester-linked phenolic acids. Addition of an enzyme cocktail (cellulases, β-glucosidase and xylanase) resulted in similar enzyme digestibilities at the two harvesting dates, ranging from 11-13% and 8-9% of the cellulose and arabinoxylan, respectively. However, the internodes, leaves and sheaths varied in cell wall content and composition and gave rise to different saccharification yields with internodes being the most recalcitrant organs. Non-cell wall fraction was estimated as the amount of material extracted by neutral detergent solution, and accounted for 23% of the whole aerial biomass harvested at an early date. However, saccharification yields from the miscanthus biomass did not change after soluble fraction removal. An ammonia pretreatment improved enzyme efficiency on early-harvested miscanthus, to a greater extent than on late-harvested biomass. This trend was confirmed for two different years of harvesting. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Habak M.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Lebrun J.L.,LPMI EPPM ENSAM CER 02
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2011
This study deals with the effect of High-Pressure Water Jet Assisted Turning (HPWJAT) of austenitic stainless steels on chip shape and residual stresses. The machining of the austenitic stainless steels represents several difficulties. Recently, research has shown that the introduction of a high-pressure water jet into the gap between the tool and the chip interface is a very satisfactory method for machining applications. In this article, the effect of a high-pressure water jet, directed into the toolchip interface, on chip shapes breakage and surface integrity in face turning operations of AISI 316L steel has been investigated. Tests have been carried out with a standard cutting tool. The cutting speeds used were 80 and 150 m/min, with a constant feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev and a constant cutting depth of 1 mm. Three jet pressures were used: 20, 50 and 80 MPa. Residual stress profiles have been analysed using the X-ray diffraction method in both longitudinal and transversal directions. The results show that jet pressure and cutting parameters influence the residual stresses and the chip shapes. Using a high-pressure jet, it is possible to create a well fragmented chip in contrast to the continuous chip formed using dry turning. It is also possible to control the chip shape and increase tool life. When the jet pressure is increased the residual stress at the surface decreases; however it is increased by an increase in cutting speed. It can be concluded that surface residual stresses can be reduced by the introduction of a high-pressure water jet. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Franz G.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Abed-Meraim F.,Arts et Metiers ParisTech |
Abed-Meraim F.,University of Lorraine |
Berveiller M.,Arts et Metiers ParisTech
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2013
In this paper, we performed a strain localization analysis for single crystals and polycrystals, with the specific aim of establishing a link between the microstructure-related parameters and ductility. To this end, advanced large-strain elastic-plastic single crystal constitutive modeling is adopted, accounting for the key physical mechanisms that are relevant at the microscale, such as dislocation storage and annihilation. The self-consistent scale-transition scheme is then used to derive the overall constitutive response of polycrystalline aggregates, including the essential microstructural aspects (e.g.; initial and induced textures, dislocation density evolution, and softening mechanisms). The resulting constitutive equations for single crystals and polycrystals are coupled with two strain localization criteria: bifurcation theory, which is also related to the loss of ellipticity in the associated boundary value problem, and the strong ellipticity condition, which is presented in full detail along with mathematical links allowing for hierarchical classification in terms of conservativeness. The application of the proposed coupling to single crystals and polycrystals allows the effect of physical microstructural parameters on material ductility to be investigated. Consistent results are found for both single crystals and polycrystals. In addition, forming limit diagrams (FLDs) are constructed for IF-Ti single-phase steels with comparison to the reference results, demonstrating the predictive capability of the proposed approach in investigations of sheet metal formability. The results of the self-consistent scheme are systematically compared to those of the more classical full-constraint Taylor model, both in terms of the impact of microstructural parameters on ductility and in terms of the predicted formability limits and the level of the associated limit strains. Finally, we investigated the impact of strain-path changes on formability through the analysis of the effect of prestrain on the FLDs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Pascoli G.,University of Picardie Jules Verne |
Lahoche L.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2010
In this article, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is presented that is aimed at understanding the anisotropic mass loss by an AGB star and subsequent bipolar planetary nebula formation. The main challenge in developing such a model was to simultaneously treat the dynamo engine in the core region of the AGB progenitor, magnetic buoyancy, meridional circulation, and gas ejection in a self-consistent manner. A previous article did not incorporate the dynamo and the feedback of the produced magnetic field on differential rotation. © 2010. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved.
Monreal P.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Mboumba-Mamboundou L.B.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Dheilly R.M.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Queneudec M.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2011
Sugar beet pulp may be used as a vegetal aggregate for insulating lightweight lignocellulosic concretes. Yet, sugar beet pulp-based concretes display a number of dimensional variations, as well as problems with set retarding, owing to both the hydrophilic character of the pulp and the organic compound secretion into the cement matrix. The aim of this work consists of conducting physicochemical treatment to minimize the hydrophilic nature of sugar beet pulp so as to avoid the kinds of issues noticed when using untreated pulp. On the whole, materials made with treated pulp show greater water resistance and smaller dimensional variation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leclerc W.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics | Year: 2015
The present work is dedicated to a numerical investigation of the connection between state of dispersion and percolation and its effect on the elastic properties of 2D random microstructures. The main objective consists in checking out the link between percolation and mechanical response in the context of a heterogeneous medium the reinforcements of which are not homogeneously dispersed. Besides, the influence of the stiffness of inclusions is also investigated since this could impact on the percolation effects. For these purposes, large samples of volume elements are generated according to the Monte Carlo method. We consider the low cost framework of 2D random grids which enables large and in-depth investigations. Besides, the spatial distribution of heterogeneities is simulated with the help of the 2-scale Boolean scheme of disks which is a powerful tool for modelling and studying several states of dispersion. The numerical results highlight beneficial mechanical reinforcements for a heterogeneous dispersion when the percolation phenomenon is enhanced. This improvement is highly sensitive to the stiffness of heterogeneities. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haddad H.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Guessasma M.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Fortin J.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2014
The mechanical and physical behaviors of complex systems are generally predicted by using the Finite Element Method (FEM). However, the treatment by FEM of non-linear material behavior and heterogeneous media is not straightforward. Conversely, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is most suitable for modeling discontinuities and microscopic phenomena. But, in some cases such as the modeling of large structures, the DEM may lead to very costly computational time. To provide a realistic simulation for complex systems requires a modeling describing physical phenomena and structure heterogeneities with a good accuracy and an acceptable computational time. This paper deals with the modeling of heat transfer in 2D continuous medium using cylindric discrete elements and the DEM-FEM coupling method applied to heat transfer in structures presenting an overlapping zone to ensure continuity between continuous and discrete domains. Therefore, the proposed modeling enables us to benefit from both DEM and FEM and will also be useful in many practical applications. A simple test performed on a flat plate submitted to thermal boundary conditions with a known analytic solution allowed us to validate the discrete model for heat transfer. Furthermore, comparisons between numerical results obtained with the DEM, FEM and DEM-FEM coupling method have been carried out through simulations of heat transfer. These comparisons show a good agreement between numerical results and validate the DEM-FEM coupling method for heat transfer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alloui Z.,University of Montréal |
Vasseur P.,University of Montréal |
Vasseur P.,CNRS Laboratory of Technology and Innovation |
Reggio M.,University of Montréal
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2011
This paper reports an analytical and numerical study of natural convection in a shallow rectangular cavity filled with nanofluids. Neumann boundary conditions for temperature are applied to the horizontal walls of the enclosure, while the two vertical ones are assumed insulated. The governing parameters for the problem are the thermal Rayleigh number, Ra, the Prandtl number Pr, the aspect ratio of the cavity, A and the solid volume fraction of nanoparticles, Φ. For convection in an infinite layer (A≫1), analytical solutions for the stream function and temperature are obtained using a parallel flow approximation in the core region of the cavity and an integral form of the energy equation. The critical Rayleigh number for the onset of supercritical convection of nanofluids is predicted explicitly by the present model. Furthermore, a linear stability analysis of the parallel flow solution is studied and the threshold for Hopf bifurcation is determined. Also, results are obtained from the analytical model for finite amplitude convection for which the flow and heat transfer is presented in terms of the governing parameters of the problem. Numerical solutions of the full governing equations are obtained for a wide range of the governing parameters. A good agreement is observed between the analytical model and the numerical simulations. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.