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Graignic-Philippe R.,University of Rennes 1 | Dayan J.,University of Rennes 1 | Chokron S.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception | Jacquet A.-Y.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

Many studies have examined effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and fetal development, especially on prematurity and birthweight, and more recently long-term effects on child behavioral and emotional development. These studies are reviewed and their limitations are discussed with regard to definitions (including the concepts of stress and anxiety), stress measurements, samples, and control for confounds such as depression. It appears necessary to assess individual stress reactivity prospectively and separately at each trimester of pregnancy, to discriminate chronic from acute stress, and to take into consideration moderator variables such as past life events, sociocultural factors, predictability, social support and coping strategies. Furthermore, it might be useful to examine simultaneously, during but also after pregnancy, stress, anxiety and depression in order to understand better their relationships and to evaluate their specific effects on pregnancy and child development. Finally, further research could benefit from an integrated psychological and biological approach studying together subjective perceived stress and objective physiological stress responses in pregnant women, and their effects on fetal and child development as well as on mother-infant interactions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Henson R.N.,MRC Cognition and Brain science Unit | Eckstein D.,University of Bern | Waszak F.,University of Paris Descartes | Waszak F.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2014

People can rapidly form arbitrary associations between stimuli and the responses they make in the presence of those stimuli. Such stimulus-response (S-R) bindings, when retrieved, affect the way that people respond to the same, or related, stimuli. Only recently, however, has the flexibility and ubiquity of these S-R bindings been appreciated, particularly in the context of priming paradigms. This is important for the many cognitive theories that appeal to evidence from priming. It is also important for the control of action generally. An S-R binding is more than a gradually learned association between a specific stimulus and a specific response; instead, it captures the full, context-dependent behavioral potential of a stimulus. © 2014 The Authors.

Hsu Y.-F.,University of Paris Descartes | Waszak F.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2012

Priming can reflect the stimulus-driven retrieval of output-related memory traces, commonly referred to as stimulus-response associations. The purpose of the current study was to investigate which aspects of the output exactly are preserved in these traces using electroencephalography (EEG). We orthogonally manipulated the repetition of action and classification whilst participants performed one of the two semantic tasks according to the cue. We found no evidence of stimulus-action associations but significant effects relevant to the retrieval of stimulus-classification associations in participants' accuracy and RT. Event-related potential (ERP) and oscillatory analysis further revealed a classification-related modulation at around 200. ms after stimulus onset, which appeared much earlier than the one reported in previous studies. These classification effects possibly indicate the modification of memory traces which requires the dynamic interaction of temporal and frontal cortices. The finding of classification effects across behavioural and EEG data suggested that the formation of stimulus-classification traces is rather spontaneous and may be dominant in single trial stimulus-response binding. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Chopin A.,University of Paris Descartes | Chopin A.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception | Mamassian P.,University of Paris Descartes | Mamassian P.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
Current Biology | Year: 2012

What humans perceive depends in part on what they have previously experienced [1, 2]. After repeated exposure to one stimulus, adaptation takes place in the form of a negative correlation between the current percept and the last displayed stimuli [3-10]. Previous work has shown that this negative dependence can extend to a few minutes in the past [5, 11, 12], but the precise extent and nature of the dependence in vision is still unknown. In two experiments based on orientation judgments, we reveal a positive dependence of a visual percept with stimuli presented remotely in the past, unexpectedly and in contrast to what is known for the recent past. Previous theories of adaptation have postulated that the visual system attempts to calibrate itself relative to an ideal norm [13, 14] or to the recent past [5, 7, 10, 15, 16]. We propose instead that the remote past is used to estimate the world's statistics and that this estimate becomes the reference. According to this new framework, adaptation is predictive: the most likely forthcoming percept is the one that helps the statistics of the most recent percepts match that of the remote past. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pelli D.G.,New York University | Cavanagh P.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
Current Biology | Year: 2013

Immediately before a large eye movement, a target object is crowded by clutter near the target's future location. This new finding, from a recent study, shows that the brain's remapping for the anticipated eye movement unavoidably combines features from the target's current and future retinal locations into one perceptual object. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Otto T.U.,University of Paris Descartes | Otto T.U.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception | Mamassian P.,University of Paris Descartes | Mamassian P.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Perceptual decisions involve the accumulation of sensory evidence over time, a process that is corrupted by noise [1]. Here, we extend the decision-making framework to crossmodal research [2, 3] and the parallel processing of two distinct signals presented to different sensory modalities like vision and audition. Contrary to the widespread view that multisensory signals are integrated prior to a single decision [4-10], we show that evidence is accumulated for each signal separately and that consequent decisions are flexibly coupled by logical operations. We find that the strong correlation of response latencies from trial to trial is critical to explain the short latencies of multisensory decisions. Most critically, we show that increased noise in multisensory decisions is needed to explain the mean and the variability of response latencies. Precise knowledge of these key factors is fundamental for the study and understanding of parallel decision processes with multisensory signals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Brette R.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2010

Responses of auditory neurons vary with many dimensions of acoustical stimuli. As a consequence, there is a difference between sensitivity to a particular dimension (e.g., ITD or level), which is assessed when only that dimension is varied while other dimensions are fixed (yielding tuning curves), and information about that dimension, which requires that all natural variability be considered. In particular, the rate of a neuron can be very sensitive to a dimension while poorly informative about it, if it is also sensitive to other dimensions. One implication is that in a multi-dimensional world, stimulus properties such as ITD are optimally coded with heterogeneous neural populations. © 2010 Acoustical Society of America.

O'Regan J.K.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
Minds and Machines | Year: 2012

Following arguments put forward in my book (Why red doesn't sound like a bell: understanding the feel of consciousness. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 2011), this article takes a pragmatic, scientist's point of view about the concepts of consciousness and "feel", pinning down what people generally mean when they talk about these concepts, and then investigating to what extent these capacities could be implemented in non-biological machines. Although the question of "feel", or "phenomenal consciousness" as it is called by some philosophers, is generally considered to be the "hard" problem of consciousness, the article shows that by taking a "sensorimotor" approach, the difficulties can be overcome. What remains to account for are the notions of so-called "access consciousness" and the self. I claim that though they are undoubtedly very difficult, these are not logically impossible to implement in robots. © Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2011.

Yeung H.H.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception | Nazzi T.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
Cognition | Year: 2014

Different kinds of speech sounds are used to signify possible word forms in every language. For example, lexical stress is used in Spanish (/'be.be/, '. he/she drinks' versus /be.'be/, '. baby'), but not in French (/'be.be/ and /be.'be/ both mean '. baby'). Infants learn many such native language phonetic contrasts in their first year of life, likely using a number of cues from parental speech input. One such cue could be parents' object labeling, which can explicitly highlight relevant contrasts. Here we ask whether phonetic learning from object labeling is abstract-that is, if learning can generalize to new phonetic contexts. We investigate this issue in the prosodic domain, as the abstraction of prosodic cues (like lexical stress) has been shown to be particularly difficult. One group of 10-month-old French-learners was given consistent word labels that contrasted on lexical stress (e.g., Object A was labeled /'ma.bu/, and Object B was labeled /ma.'bu/). Another group of 10-month-olds was given inconsistent word labels (i.e., mixed pairings), and stress discrimination in both groups was measured in a test phase with words made up of new syllables. Infants trained with consistently contrastive labels showed an earlier effect of discrimination compared to infants trained with inconsistent labels. Results indicate that phonetic learning from object labeling can indeed generalize, and suggest one way infants may learn the sound properties of their native language(s). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Agus T.R.,CNRS Laboratory of Physiology of Perception
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012

Human listeners seem to have an impressive ability to recognize a wide variety of natural sounds. However, there is surprisingly little quantitative evidence to characterize this fundamental ability. Here the speed and accuracy of musical-sound recognition were measured psychophysically with a rich but acoustically balanced stimulus set. The set comprised recordings of notes from musical instruments and sung vowels. In a first experiment, reaction times were collected for three target categories: voice, percussion, and strings. In a go/no-go task, listeners reacted as quickly as possible to members of a target category while withholding responses to distractors (a diverse set of musical instruments). Results showed near-perfect accuracy and fast reaction times, particularly for voices. In a second experiment, voices were recognized among strings and vice-versa. Again, reaction times to voices were faster. In a third experiment, auditory chimeras were created to retain only spectral or temporal features of the voice. Chimeras were recognized accurately, but not as quickly as natural voices. Altogether, the data suggest rapid and accurate neural mechanisms for musical-sound recognition based on selectivity to complex spectro-temporal signatures of sound sources.

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