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Arzel O.,CNRS Laboratory of Ocean Physics | England M.H.,University of New South Wales
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

The influence of changes in surface wind-stress on the properties (amplitude and period) and domain of existence of thermohaline millennial oscillations is studied by means of a coupled model of intermediate complexity set up in an idealized spherical sector geometry of the Atlantic basin. Using the atmospheric CO2 concentration as the control parameter, bifurcation diagrams of the model are built to show that the influence of wind-stress changes on glacial abrupt variability is threefold. First, millennial-scale oscillations are significantly amplified through wind-feedback-induced changes in both northern sea ice export and oceanic heat transport. Changes in surface wind-stress more than double the amplitude of the strong warming events that punctuate glacial abrupt variability obtained under prescribed winds in the model. Second, the average duration of both stadials and interstadials is significantly lengthened and the temporal structure of observed variability is better captured under interactive winds. Third, the generation of millennial-scale oscillations is shown to occur for significantly colder climates when wind-stress feedback is enabled. This behaviour results from the strengthening of the negative temperature-advection feedback associated with stronger northward oceanic heat transport under interactive winds. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Joubert W.R.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Joubert W.R.,University of Cape Town | Thomalla S.J.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Thomalla S.J.,University of Cape Town | And 6 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2011

As part of the Bonus-GoodHope (BGH) campaign, 15N-labelled nitrate, ammonium and urea uptake measurements were made along the BGH transect from Cape Town to ∼60°S in late austral summer, 2008. Our results are categorised according to distinct hydrographic regions defined by oceanic fronts and open ocean zones. High regenerated nitrate uptake rate in the oligotrophic Subtropical Zone (STZ) resulted in low f-ratios (f = 0.2) with nitrogen uptake being dominated by ρurea, which contributed up to 70 % of total nitrogen uptake. Size fractionated chlorophyll data showed that the greatest contribution (>50 %) of picophytoplankton (<2 μm) were found in the STZ, consistent with a community based on regenerated production. The Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) showed the greatest total integrated nitrogen uptake (10.3 mmol m -2 d -1), mainly due to enhanced nutrient supply within an anticyclonic eddy observed in this region. A decrease in the contribution of smaller size classes to the phytoplankton community was observed with increasing latitude, concurrent with a decrease in the contribution of regenerated production. Higher f-ratios observed in the SAZ (f = 0.49), Polar Frontal Zone (f= 0.41) and Antarctic Zone (f = 0.45) relative to the STZ (f = 0.24), indicate a higher contribution of NO3-uptake relative to total nitrogen and potentially higher export production. High ambient regenerated nutrient concentrations are indicative of active regeneration processes throughout the transect and ascribed to late summer season sampling. Higher depth integrated uptake rates also correspond with higher surface iron concentrations. No clear correlation was observed between carbon export estimates derived from new production and 234Th flux. In addition, export derived from 15N estimates were 2-20 times greater than those based on 234Th flux. Variability in the magnitude of export is likely due to intrinsically different methods, compounded by differences in integration time scales for the two proxies of carbon export. © Author(s) 2011. Source


Marchesiello P.,Laboratoire dEtudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale Legos | Capet X.,CNRS Laboratory of Ocean Physics | Menkes C.,British Petroleum | Kennan S.C.,National Science Foundation
Ocean Modelling | Year: 2011

Submesoscale dynamics in tropical instability waves (TIWs) of the Pacific ocean are analyzed from nested numerical simulations of increasing resolution (36km, 12km, and 4km). It is shown that numerical convergence, as determined by an invariance of the kinetic energy (KE) spectrum with resolution, can be obtained for grid spacing around 10km. This finding contrasts with mid-latitude simulations of submesoscale processes that do not converge even for grid spacing less than 1km. The difference is associated with the larger Rossby radius of deformation at low latitudes due to the weaker Coriolis parameter. For the same reason, the mixed layer Rossby radius is larger as well, resulting in submesoscale mixed layer eddies (MLEs) with scales of 50-200km. Similar to MLEs at mid-latitudes, those eddies that form at TIW fronts restratify the mixed layer by releasing available potential energy. They lead to an additional source of KE at submesoscale that is larger in the finer resolution simulations. At wavelengths smaller than the mesoscale peak of KE injection, a forward cascade of KE is evident in the simulations where three dynamical ranges are observed: a quasi-inertial range of slope k-2, a pre-dissipation range and a far-dissipation range. Numerical dissipation is evaluated and significant dissipation is found to occur in a pre-dissipation range, i.e., for wavenumbers well below the range where the KE spectrum tails off exponentially. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Griffies S.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Treguier A.M.,CNRS Laboratory of Ocean Physics
International Geophysics | Year: 2013

This chapter focuses on numerical models used to understand and predict large-scale circulation, such as the circulation comprising basin and global scales. It is organized according to two themes. The first addresses physical and numerical topics forming a foundation for ocean models. We focus here on the science of ocean models, in which we ask questions about fundamental processes and develop the mathematical equations for ocean thermo-hydrodynamics. We also touch upon various methods used to represent the continuum ocean fluid with a discrete computer model, raising such topics as the finite volume formulation of the ocean equations; the choice for vertical coordinate; the complementary issues related to horizontal gridding; and the pervasive questions of subgrid scale parameterizations. The second theme of this chapter concerns the applications of ocean models, in particular how to design an experiment and how to analyze results. This material forms the basis for ocean modelling, with the aim being to mechanistically describe, interpret, understand, and predict emergent features of the simulated, and ultimately the observed, ocean. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Prothin S.,Institute Superieure Of Laeronautique Et Of Lespace Isae Toulouse | Djeridi H.,CNRS Laboratory of Ocean Physics | Billard J.-Y.,CNRS Naval Academy Research Institute
Journal of Fluids and Structures | Year: 2014

In this paper, the influence of a single tip vortex on boundary layer detachment is studied. This study offers a preliminary approach in order to better understand the interaction between a propeller hub vortex and the rudder installed in its wake. This configuration belongs to the field of marine propulsion and encompasses such specific problem as cavitation inception, modification of propulsive performances and induced vibrations. To better understand the complex mechanisms due to propeller-rudder interactions it was decided to emphasize configurations where the hub vortex is generated by an elliptical 3-D foil and is located upstream of a 2-D NACA0015 foil at high incidences for a Reynolds number of 5×105. The physical mechanisms were studied using Time Resolved Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-SPIV) techniques. Particular attention was paid to the detachment at 25° incidence and a detailed cartography of the mean and turbulent properties of the wake is presented. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis was applied in order to highlight the unsteady nature of the flow using phase averaging based on the first POD coefficients to characterize the turbulent and coherent process in the near wake of the rudder. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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