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Li X.,CNRS Laboratory of Design and Application of Bioactive Molecules
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Nanoemulsions consist of very stable nanodroplets of oil dispersed in an aqueous phase, typically below 300 nm in size. They can be used to obtain a very fine, homogeneous dispersion of lipophilic compounds in water, thus facilitating their handling and use in nanomedicine. However, the drawback is that they are suspended in an aqueous media. This study proposes a novel technique for drying lipid nanoemulsion suspensions to create so-called Trojan particles, ie, polymer microparticles (around 2 μm) which very homogeneously "entrap" the nano-oil droplets (around 150 nm) in their core. Microencapsulation of the nanoemulsions was performed using a spray-drying process and resulted in a dried powder of microparticles. By using a low-energy nanoemulsification method and relatively gentle spray-drying, the process was well suited to sensitive molecules. The model lipophilic molecule tested was vitamin E acetate, encapsulated at around 20% in dried powder. We showed that the presence of nanoemulsions in solution before spray-drying had a significant impact on microparticle size, distribution, and morphology. However, the process itself did not destroy the oil nanodroplets, which could easily be redispersed when the powder was put back in contact with water. High-performance liquid chromatography follow-up of the integrity of the vitamin E acetate showed that the molecules were intact throughout the process, as well as when conserved in their dried form. This study proposes a novel technique using a spray-drying process to microencapsulate nanoemulsions. The multiscale object formed, so-called Trojan microparticles, were shown to successfully encapsulate, protect, and release the lipid nanodroplets.

Jiang R.,CNRS Laboratory of Design and Application of Bioactive Molecules
Channels (Austin, Tex.) | Year: 2012

The molecular mechanism underlying channel opening in response to agonist binding remains a challenging issue in neuroscience. In this regard, many efforts have been recently undertaken in ATP-gated P2X receptors. Among those efforts, we have provided evidence in the P2X2 receptor that tightening of ATP sites upon agonist binding induces opening of the ion channel. Here we extend our analysis to show that the sulfhydryl-reactive ATP analog 8-thiocyano-ATP (NCS-ATP), a potent P2X2 agonist, when covalently labeled in the ATP-binding site at position Leu186 likely favors the tightening mechanism, but not the channel opening mechanism. Our data predict the existence of intermediate or preactivation state(s) trapped by NCS-ATP, in which tightening of the binding site is favored while the channel is still closed. We propose that this (these) intermediate ATP-bound state(s) prime(s) channel gating in the P2X2 receptor.

Nguyen P.N.,Charles Sadron Institute | Waton G.,Charles Sadron Institute | Vandamme T.,CNRS Laboratory of Design and Application of Bioactive Molecules | Krafft M.P.,Charles Sadron Institute
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Prolonged periodical variations of the surface density of a film of phospholipids adsorbed on the surface of an air bubble and in contact with a dispersion of phospholipid vesicles (orange) lead to accelerated phospholipid adsorption and lowering of the interfacial tension. The phenomenon is assigned to a coupling between the periodical variation of the surface density of the phospholipid at the interface and its dilute-to-condensed (LE-to-LC) phase transition. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Foillard S.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Zuber G.,CNRS Laboratory of Design and Application of Bioactive Molecules | Doris E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center
Nanoscale | Year: 2011

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) covalently modified with low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) are able to bind and deliver siRNA to cells with higher efficacy than a reference lipidic carrier. The performances of the nanohybrid are rationalized by the combination of the cell penetration and endosomal escape properties of CNTs and PEI, respectively. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Koniev O.,CNRS Laboratory of Design and Application of Bioactive Molecules | Wagner A.,CNRS Laboratory of Design and Application of Bioactive Molecules
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

Bioconjugation methodologies have proven to play a central enabling role in the recent development of biotherapeutics and chemical biology approaches. Recent endeavours in these fields shed light on unprecedented chemical challenges to attain bioselectivity, biocompatibility, and biostability required by modern applications. In this review the current developments in various techniques of selective bond forming reactions of proteins and peptides were highlighted. The utility of each endogenous amino acid-selective conjugation methodology in the fields of biology and protein science has been surveyed with emphasis on the most relevant among reported transformations; selectivity and practical use have been discussed. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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