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Arock M.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | Valent P.,Medical University of Vienna
Expert Review of Hematology | Year: 2010

Mastocytosis is a myeloid neoplasm characterized by abnormal accumulation and frequent activation of mast cells (MCs) in various organs. Organ systems typically involved are the bone marrow, skin, liver and gastrointestinal tract. In most adult patients, the systemic form of mastocytosis (SM) is diagnosed, which includes an indolent subvariant, an aggressive subvariant and a leukemic subvariant, also termed MC leukemia. Whereas in pediatric mastocytosis, which is usually confined to the skin, a number of different KIT mutations and other defects may be detected, the KIT mutation D816V is detectable in most (adult) patients with SM. In a subset of these patients, additional oncogenic factors may lead to enhanced survival and growth of MCs and, thus, to advanced SM. Other factors may lead to MC activation, with consecutive anaphylactic reactions that can be severe or even fatal. Treatment of SM usually focuses on symptom relief by histamine receptor antagonists and other supportive therapy. However, in aggressive and leukemic variants, cytoreductive and targeted drugs must be applied. Unfortunately, the prognosis in these patients remains poor, even when treated with novel KIT-targeting agents, polychemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. This article provides a summary of our knowledge on the pathogenesis and on treatment options in SM. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Amson R.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | Karp J.E.,Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center | Telerman A.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tumor reversion is the biological process by which highly tumorigenic cells lose at great extent or entirely their malignant phenotype. The purpose of our research is to understand the molecular program of tumor reversion and its clinical application. We first established biological models of reversion, which was done by deriving revertant cells from different tumors. Secondly, the molecular program that could override the malignant phenotype was assessed. Differential gene-expression profiling showed that at least 300 genes are implicated in this reversion process such as SIAH-1, PS1, TSAP6, and, most importantly, translationally controlled tumor protein (TPT1/TCTP). Decreasing TPT1/TCTP is key in reprogramming malignant cells, including cancer stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings indicate that TPT1/TCTP regulates the P53-MDM2-Numb axis. Notably, TPT1/TCTP and p53 are implicated in a reciprocal negative-feedback loop. TPT1/TCTP is a highly significant prognostic factor in breast cancer. Sertraline and thioridazine interfere with this repressive feedback by targeting directly TPT1/TCTP and inhibiting its binding to MDM2, restoring wildtype p53 function. Combining sertraline with classical drugs such as Ara-C in acute myeloid leukemia may be also beneficial. SUMMARY: In this review, we discuss some of these reversion pathways and how this approach could open a new route to cancer treatment. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Amson R.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | Pece S.,Istituto di Oncologia Molecolare | Pece S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Marine J.-C.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Evolutionary conserved and pleiotropic, the TPT1/TCTP gene (translationally controlled tumor protein, also called HRF, fortilin), encodes a highly structured mRNA shielded by ribonucleoproteins and closely resembling viral particles. This mRNA activates, as do viruses, protein kinase R (PKR). The TPT1/TCTP protein is structurally similar to mRNA-helicases and MSS4. TPT1/TCTP has recently been identified as a prognostic factor in breast cancer and a critical regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 and of the cancer stem cell (SC) compartment. Emerging evidence indicates that TPT1/TCTP is key to phenotypic reprogramming, as shown in the process of tumor reversion and possibly in pluripotency. We provide here an overview of these diverse functions of TPT1/TCTP. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brambilla E.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | Brambilla E.,Jacobs University Bremen | Sclavi B.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2015

Cellular adaptation to changing environmental conditions requires the coordinated regulation of expression of large sets of genes by global regulatory factors such as nucleoid associated proteins. Although in eukaryotic cells genomic position is known to play an important role in regulation of gene expression, it remains to be established whether in bacterial cells there is an influence of chromosomal position on the efficiency of these global regulators. Here we show for the first time that genome position can affect transcription activity of a promoter regulated by the histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS), a global regulator of bacterial transcription and genome organization. We have used as a local reporter of H-NS activity the level of expression of a fluorescent reporter protein under control of an H-NS2regulated promoter (Phns) at different sites along the genome. Our results show that the activity of the Phns promoter depends on whether it is placed within the AT-rich regions of the genome that are known to be bound preferentially by H-NS. This modulation of gene expression moreover depends on the growth phase and the growth rate of the cells, reflecting the changes taking place in the relative abundance of different nucleoid proteins and the inherent heterogeneous organization of the nucleoid. Genomic position can thus play a significant role in the adaptation of the cells to environmental changes, providing a fitness advantage that can explain the selection of a gene's position during evolution. © 2015 Brambilla and Sclavi. Source

Henry E.,Rennes Institute of Physics | Henry E.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | Dif A.,CNRS Chemistry Institute of Rennes | Schmutz M.,Charles Sadron Institute | And 4 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

Biological molecules and molecular self-assemblies are promising templates to organize well-defined inorganic nanostructures. We demonstrate the ability of a self-assembled three-dimensional crystal template of helical actin protein filaments and lipids bilayers to generate a hierarchical self-assembly of quantum dots. Functionnalized tricystein peptidic quantum dots (QDs) are incorporated during the dynamical self-assembly of this actin/lipid template resulting in the formation of crystalline fibers. The crystal parameters, 26.5 × 18.9 × 35.5 nm 3, are imposed by the membrane thickness, the diameter, and the pitch of the actin self-assembly. This process ensures the high quality of the crystal and results in unexpected fluorescence properties. This method of preparation offers opportunities to generate crystals with new symmetries and a large range of distance parameters. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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