CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms

Paris, France

CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms

Paris, France
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Sarabeev V.,Zaporizhzhia National University | Desdevises Y.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

Within ectoparasitic fish monogeneans, the genus Ligophorus contains a high number of species from which several were recently described. The precise determination of their taxonomic status requires robust diagnostic morphologic features that rely predominantly on a restricted set of sclerotized structures. In the present study, these morphological characters were used for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree, which was compared with a tree built from molecular data (28S and ITS1 DNA sequences). Thirty-eight morphological characters were used in 29 species of Ligophorus from the Atlantic and Pacific regions and 5 species within close genera of Dactylogyridae. The morphological and molecular phylogenetic trees are congruent and suggest that the genus Ligophorus is monophyletic, and that species parasitizing Liza spp. and Chelon labrosus occupy basal positions. The present study suggests that host switching is a common event in this host-parasite association, because about half of the species infecting the same host species are not close relatives. Following host switching, dispersal with vicariance is probably an important force shaping the present distribution and diversity of Ligophorus. The pattern of occurrence of Ligophorus spp. on Mugil cephalus supports that reproductive isolation and therefore parallel speciation are taking place among these parasitic organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

James J.E.,University of Sussex | Piganeau G.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Eyre-Walker A.,University of Sussex
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2016

We have investigated whether there is adaptive evolution in mitochondrial DNA, using an extensive data set containing over 500 animal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups. We apply a variety of McDonald-Kreitman style methods to the data. We find that the evolution of mitochondrial DNA is dominated by slightly deleterious mutations, a finding which is supported by a number of previous studies. However, when we control for the presence of deleterious mutations using a new method, we find that mitochondria undergo a significant amount of adaptive evolution, with an estimated 26% (95% confidence intervals: 5.7-45%) of nonsynonymous substitutions fixed by adaptive evolution. We further find some weak evidence that the rate of adaptive evolution is correlated to synonymous diversity. We interpret this as evidence that at least some adaptive evolution is limited by the supply of mutations. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Piganeau G.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Piganeau G.,University of Sussex | Grimsley N.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Moreau H.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2011

Unicellular algae of the class Mamiellophyceae are widespread in our oceans and their apparent uniformity conceals an impressive array of biologically distinct species. Each of the five complete genomes analysed so far reveals densely packed coding sequences, with strong evolutionary divergence from its nearest phylogenetically defined neighbours. These species lie at the base of the green lineage, but various metabolic processes reflect their marine life-styles and distinguish them from land plants, including a high proportion of selenoprotein enzymes and C4 photosynthesis. They all possess two unusual chromosomes, with lower GC content and atypical gene content, whose function so far remains enigmatic. © 2011 Institut Pasteur.

Piganeau G.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Eyre-Walker A.,University of Sussex | Grimsley N.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Moreau H.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Because many picoplanktonic eukaryotic species cannot currently be maintained in culture, direct sequencing of PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal gene DNA fragments from filtered sea-water has been successfully used to investigate the astounding diversity of these organisms. The recognition of many novel planktonic organisms is thus based solely on their 18S rDNA sequence. However, a species delimited by its 18S rDNA sequence might contain many cryptic species, which are highly differentiated in their protein coding sequences. Principal Findings: Here, we investigate the issue of species identification from one gene to the whole genome sequence. Using 52 whole genome DNA sequences, we estimated the global genetic divergence in protein coding genes between organisms from different lineages and compared this to their ribosomal gene sequence divergences. We show that this relationship between proteome divergence and 18S divergence is lineage dependant. Unicellular lineages have especially low 18S divergences relative to their protein sequence divergences, suggesting that 18S ribosomal genes are too conservative to assess planktonic eukaryotic diversity. We provide an explanation for this lineage dependency, which suggests that most species with large effective population sizes will show far less divergence in 18S than protein coding sequences. Conclusions: There is therefore a trade-off between using genes that are easy to amplify in all species, but which by their nature are highly conserved and underestimate the true number of species, and using genes that give a better description of the number of species, but which are more difficult to amplify. We have shown that this trade-off differs between unicellular and multicellular organisms as a likely consequence of differences in effective population sizes. We anticipate that biodiversity of microbial eukaryotic species is underestimated and that numerous "cryptic species" will become discernable with the future acquisition of genomic and metagenomic sequences. © 2011 Piganeau et al.

Toulza E.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Tagliabue A.,French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory | Blain S.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Blain S.,CNRS Microbial Oceanography Laboratory | Piganeau G.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe 2+ versus Fe 3+ uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations. © 2012 Toulza et al.

Mendlova M.,Masaryk University | Desdevises Y.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Civanova K.,Masaryk University | Pariselle A.,Montpellier University | Simkova A.,Masaryk University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1) to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2) to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3) to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4) to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids. © 2012 Mendlova et al.

Roure A.,Aix - Marseille University | Roure A.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Lemaire P.,Aix - Marseille University | Lemaire P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

In chordates, neural induction is the first step of a complex developmental process through which ectodermal cells acquire a neural identity. In ascidians, FGF-mediated neural induction occurs at the 32-cell stage in two blastomere pairs, precursors respectively of anterior and posterior neural tissue. We combined molecular embryology and cis-regulatory analysis to unveil in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis the remarkably simple proximal genetic network that controls posterior neural fate acquisition downstream of FGF. We report that the combined action of two direct FGF targets, the TGFβ factor Nodal, acting via Smad- and Fox-binding sites, and the transcription factor Otx suffices to trigger ascidian posterior neural tissue formation. Moreover, we found that this strategy is conserved in the distantly related ascidian Phallusia mammillata, in spite of extreme sequence divergence in the cis-regulatory sequences involved. Our results thus highlight that the modes of gene regulatory network evolution differ with the evolutionary scale considered. Within ascidians, developmental regulatory networks are remarkably robust to genome sequence divergence. Between ascidians and vertebrates, major fate determinants, such as Otx and Nodal, can be co-opted into different networks. Comparative developmental studies in ascidians with divergent genomes will thus uncover shared ascidian strategies, and contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of developmental strategies within chordates. © 2014 Roure et al.

Bertrand S.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Iwema T.,University of Reunion Island | Escriva H.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Complex metazoan bodies require cell-to-cell communication for development, a process often mediated by signaling molecules binding to specific receptors. Relatively few signaling pathways have been recruited during evolution to build multicellular animals from unicellular zygotes. Of these few signaling pathways, one of particular importance is the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway. In metazoans, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) bind to receptors in the RTK family, but the origin of the FGF gene family has so far remained a mystery. Here we show that extant bona fide FGFs most likely originated from proteins bearing an FGF-like domain that arose in a choanoflagellate/metazoan ancestor. We found orthologous genes closely related to FGF in choanoflagellates as well as in many metazoans such as sponges, acoels, protostomes, or nonvertebrate deuterostomes. We also show that these genes have a common evolutionary history with Retinitis Pigmentosa 1 (RP1). Even if some metazoan signaling pathways emerged long before multicellularity, we show that FGFs, like their receptors, originated in a eumetazoan ancestor. © 2013 The Author.

Roure A.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Darras S.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

The tail ascidian larval peripheral nervous system is made up of epidermal sensory neurons distributed more or less regularly in ventral and dorsal midlines. Their formation occurs in two-steps: the ventral and dorsal midlines are induced as neurogenic territories by Fgf9/16/20 and Admp respectively. The Delta2/Notch interaction then controls the number of neurons that form. The genetic machinery acting between the inductive processes taking place before gastrulation and neuron specification at tailbud stages are largely unknown. The analysis of seven transcription factors expressed in the forming midlines revealed an unexpected complexity and dynamic of gene expression. Their systematic overexpression confirmed that these genes do not interact following a linear cascade of activation. However, the integration of our data revealed the distinct key roles of the two upstream factors Msxb and Nkx-C that are the earliest expressed genes and the only ones able to induce neurogenic midline and ESN formation. Our data suggest that Msxb would be the primary midline gene integrating inputs from the ventral and dorsal inducers and launching a pan-midline transcriptional program. Nkx-C would be involved in tail tip specification, in maintenance of the pan-midline network and in a posterior to anterior wave controlling differentiation. © 2015.

Poisot T.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms | Verneau O.,CNRS Training and Research Center on Mediterranean Environments | Desdevises Y.,CNRS Integrative Biology of Marine Organisms
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs 1922 (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) is a genus of common parasites on the gills of sparid fishes. Here we show that this genus is probably undergoing a fast molecular diversification, as reflected by the important genetic variability observed within three molecular markers (partial nuclear 18S rDNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 1, and mitonchondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I). Using an updated phylogeny of this genus, we show that molecular and morphological evolution are weakly correlated, and that most of the morphologically defined taxonomical units are not consistent with the molecular data. We suggest that Lamellodiscus morphology is probably constrained by strong environmental (host-induced) pressure, and discuss why this result can apply to other taxa. Genetic variability within nuclear 18S and mitochondrial COI genes are compared for several monogenean genera, as this measure may reflect the level of diversification within a genus. Overall our results suggest that cryptic speciation events may occur within Lamellodiscus, and discuss the links between morphological and molecular evolution. © 2011 Poisot et al.

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