Cayenne, French Guiana
Cayenne, French Guiana

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Fouquet A.,CNRS Guyane USR 3456 | Fouquet A.,University of Sao Paulo | Loebmann D.,Grande Rio University | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,American Museum of Natural History | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8. kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7. Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13. Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with major events that have shaped the face of the South American continent, as we know it today. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | French Natural History Museum, CNRS Guyane USR 3456, Institut Universitaire de France, University of Strasbourg and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy.Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice.The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3g/mL and 10.3g/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0g/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a dose dependent manner. At a concentration of 50g/mL, the decoction inhibited the secretion of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNF (-18%), IL-1 (-58%), IL-6 (-32%), IL-8 (-21%). It also exhibited a mild NO secretion inhibition (-13%) at the same concentration. The decoction was non-cytotoxic against L6 cells (IC50>100g/mL), RAW cells and PBMC. In vivo, 150L of the decoction given orally twice a day (equivalent to 350mg/kg/day of dried extract) inhibited 39.7% average parasite growth, with more than 50% of inhibition in three mice over five. The absence of response for the two remaining mice, however, induced a strong standard deviation.This study highlighted the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the decoction of P. acutangulum aerial parts, used by Wayana Amerindians from the Upper-Maroni in French Guiana in case of malaria. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which may help to explain its use against this disease, was demonstrated using models of artificially stimulated cells.


Courtois E.A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pineau K.,Association Reserve Naturelle Tresor | Villette B.,Association Reserve Naturelle Tresor | Schmeller D.S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gaucher P.,CNRS Guyane USR 3456
Phyllomedusa | Year: 2012

Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae) at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection. The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues) of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR) to make robust estimations of the species' density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of the pathogen fungal Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in two populations (Favard and Nouragues). Based on the CMR protocol, the densities of frogs was 8.43 individuals/100 m2 at Favard, 4.28 individuals/100 m2 at Nouragues and from 2.30 to 4.67 individuals/100 m2 at Tresor (depending on the CMR model used); these data provide a baseline for population densities of D. tinctorius in French Guiana, against which future population estimates can be compared. We found that 25 encounter events may be sufficient for stable population estimates, if the captures are concentrated in time. Bd was detected at both sites (Favard 7/152; Nouragues 3/18). © 2012 Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas - ESALQ - USP.


Courtois E.A.,CNRS Guyane USR 3456 | Courtois E.A.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | Courtois E.A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Devillechabrolle J.,AGEP | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR), estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius), a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19) can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes. © 2013 Courtois et al.


Courtois E.A.,CNRS Guyane USR 3456 | Michel E.,CNRS Guyane USR 3456 | Martinez Q.,CNRS Guyane USR 3456 | Pineau K.,Groupe dEtude et de Protection des Oiseaux de Guyane | And 3 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2015

Climate change is expected to have important impacts on biodiversity. However, cases showing explicit links between species decline and climate are scarce, mostly because of a lack of baseline data. Tropical ectotherms with narrow altitudinal ranges are particularly sensitive to climate change; for example the frog Pristimantis espedeus may be at risk, with only nine populations known to date in French Guiana, all on isolated massifs. Ecological niche modelling indicated that these populations could disappear by 2070. To facilitate testing of this prediction we conducted a study to design an efficient, cost-effective monitoring protocol, combining occupancy rate estimations using passive acoustic recorders, and abundance estimations using acoustic repeated counts and capture–mark–recapture. We found the passive recorders to be effective, with a detection probability of 0.8. Two recording sessions were sufficient to estimate occupancy rates reliably. A minimum of 57 surveyed sites were required to detect a decline of 15% in occupancy between two consecutive monitoring events. Acoustic repeated counts and capture–mark–recapture yielded similar density estimates (1.6 and 1.8 calling males per 100 m2, respectively). Based on these results we present a protocol based on passive acoustic recording and abundance monitoring to monitor P. espedeus populations. Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2015


Mendoza I.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | Mendoza I.,Claro | Martin G.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | Caubere A.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Ecology | Year: 2015

Species showing mast seeding synchronously produce large amounts of fruits during some scattered years. This massive crop has been hypothesized to improve dispersal effectiveness by a satiation of seed predators, but the consequences for seed dispersers have barely been studied in the tropics. We tested the hypothesis that masting resulted in satiation of frugivorous dispersers using the study case of two Manilkara species growing in an Amazonian forest in French Guiana. Seed dispersal was estimated by means of seed traps in two forest types during a 10-y monitoring. Manilkara huberi and M. bidentata showed three fruiting events in a time span of 10 y (in 2001, 2006 and 2010). Estimates of seed dispersal from 2001 and 2010 showed that satiation of frugivores only occurred in the year with the largest crop of Manilkara (2010) and in the habitat where the diversity of primate-dispersed species retrieved in seed traps was the highest (Grand Plateau, with clay soils), while fruit consumers did not seem to be satiated in other instances. Spatio-temporal variability of seed production and the community-crop context are therefore affecting satiation of frugivores during masting events. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015

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