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Birol F.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory | Cancet M.,CNRS Laboratory for Aerology | Estournel C.,CNRS Laboratory for Aerology
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2010

Altimetry has become a powerful tool to understand the dynamics of the deep-sea ocean circulation. Despite the technical problems encountered in the coastal zone by this observational technique, resulting in large data gaps in those areas, solutions already exist to mitigate this issue and to allow the retrieval of coastal information from existing altimetric data. Using some of these solutions, we have reprocessed a new set of 14.5 years of the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellite altimeter data over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, leading to a significant increase in the quantity of available data near coastlines. Time series of geostrophic surface velocity anomalies have been computed from the along-track altimeter sea level anomalies. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of these altimeter-derived currents to capture the main surface circulation features and the associated seasonal variability in the area of interest. In-situ ADCP current measurements are used to estimate the accuracy of altimeter geostrophic surface velocity anomalies at different locations on the shelf edge. The results indicate good qualitative altimeter performances at seasonal time scales, confirming that altimetry is reliable to observe synoptic variations of the Liguro-Provençal-Catalan Current System. The seasonal evolution of the shelf edge flow is then documented using results from satellite altimetry and from sea surface temperature (SST). The regional picture of the shelf edge circulation that emerges agrees fairly well with previous knowledge (the flow is much stronger during winter than during summer) but also reveals interesting aspects of the coastal current system: (1) the characteristics of the seasonal cycle observed appear highly consistent along the Northwestern Mediterranean shelf break, suggesting a continuous current from the Tyrrhenian to the Balearic Seas, (2) the relationship with the Balearic Current appears somewhat more complex and suggests that its evolution is controlled by another inflow contribution, at least in spring, (3) the seasonal variations of the shelf edge flow over a particular year can show large discrepancies with the averaged picture presented in this study, since large year to year differences are observed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Rahmstorf S.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Foster G.,Tempo Analytics | Cazenave A.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2012

We analyse global temperature and sea-level data for the past few decades and compare them to projections published in the third and fourth assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The results show that global temperature continues to increase in good agreement with the best estimates of the IPCC, especially if we account for the effects of short-term variability due to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, volcanic activity and solar variability. The rate of sea-level rise of the past few decades, on the other hand, is greater than projected by the IPCC models. This suggests that IPCC sea-level projections for the future may also be biased low. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Stammer D.,University of Hamburg | Cazenave A.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory | Ponte R.M.,Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. | Tamisiea M.E.,National Oceanographic Center
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2013

Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Nicholls R.J.,University of Southampton | Cazenave A.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory
Science | Year: 2010

Global sea levels have risen through the 20th century. These rises will almost certainly accelerate through the 21st century and beyond because of global warming, but their magnitude remains uncertain. Key uncertainties include the possible role of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and the amplitude of regional changes in sea level. In many areas, nonclimatic components of relative sealevel change (mainly subsidence) can also be locally appreciable. Although the impacts of sea-level rise are potentially large, the application and success of adaptation are large uncertainties that require more assessment and consideration. Copyright Science 2010 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. Source


Fiolleau T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Roca R.,CNRS Geophysical Research and Oceanographic Laboratory
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

The ability of the current and upcoming space-borne microwave observing systems to document precipitation processes during the life cycle of tropical convective systems is investigated with emphasis on sampling considerations. A composite technique is introduced that will serve as a Day 1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission. It is exemplified using the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) instrument and the fleet of operational geostationary infrared images for the boreal summer 2009 over the whole intertropical belt. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is overall strong at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases as the system shrinks and dissipates. Larger rain yields are observed for the land systems (~6 mm h-1 maximum) compared to the systems over ocean (~4 mm h-1 maximum). An in-depth analysis of the sensitivity of the results to various aspects of the sampling is performed using simulated observations. The benefit of using various platforms is discussed, including considerations of constellation configuration. The entire Tropics as well as regional scales are explored, revealing the expected improvements from the inclusion of the Megha-Tropiques observations. The sampling results are also strongly supportive of the use of multiple-platform microwave observations from the upcoming Global Precipitation Mission constellation to build a mesoscale convective system precipitation composite life cycle, although the merging of the parameters derived from various resolution radiometers would deserve further investigations. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

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