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Buisson L.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Buisson L.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory | Thuiller W.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Casajus N.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

Species distribution modelling has been widely applied in order to assess the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Many methodological decisions, taken during the modelling process and forecasts, may, however, lead to a large variability in the assessment of future impacts. Using measures of species range change and turnover, the potential impacts of climate change on French stream fish species and assemblages were evaluated. Our main focus was to quantify the uncertainty in the projections of these impacts arising from four sources of uncertainty: initial datasets (Data), statistical methods [species distribution models (SDM)], general circulation models (GCM), and gas emission scenarios (GES). Several modalities of the aforementioned uncertainty sources were combined in an ensemble forecasting framework resulting in 8400 different projections. The variance explained by each source was then extracted from this whole ensemble of projections. Overall, SDM contributed to the largest variation in projections, followed by GCM, whose contribution increased over time equalling almost the proportion of variance explained by SDM in 2080. Data and GES had little influence on the variability in projections. Future projections of range change were more consistent for species with a large geographical extent (i.e., distribution along latitudinal or stream gradients) or with restricted environmental requirements (i.e., small thermal or elevation ranges). Variability in projections of turnover was spatially structured at the scale of France, indicating that certain particular geographical areas should be considered with care when projecting the potential impacts of climate change. The results of this study, therefore, emphasized that particular attention should be paid to the use of predictions ensembles resulting from the application of several statistical methods and climate models. Moreover, forecasted impacts of climate change should always be provided with an assessment of their uncertainty, so that management and conservation decisions can be taken in the full knowledge of their reliability. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Guenet B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Guenet B.,French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory | Danger M.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory | Danger M.,University of Lorraine | And 2 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2010

Understanding how ecosystems store or release carbon is one of ecology's greatest challenges in the 21st century. Organic matter covers a large range of chemical structures and qualities, and it is classically represented by pools of different recalcitrance to degradation. The interaction effects of these pools on carbon cycling are still poorly understood and are most often ignored in global-change models. Soil scientists have shown that inputs of labile organic matter frequently tend to increase, and often double, the mineralization of the more recalcitrant organic matter. The recent revival of interest for this phenomenon, named the priming effect, did not cross the frontiers of the disciplines. In particular, the priming effect phenomenon has been almost totally ignored by the scientific communities studying marine and continental aquatic ecosystems. Here we gather several arguments, experimental results, and field observations that strongly support the hypothesis that the priming effect is a general phenomenon that occurs in various terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. For example, the increase in recalcitrant organic matter mineralization rate in the presence of labile organic matter ranged from 10% to 500% in six studies on organic matter degradation in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, the recalcitrant organic matter mineralization rate may largely depend on labile organic matter availability, influencing the CO 2 emissions of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We suggest that (1) recalcitrant organic matter may largely contribute to the CO 2 emissions of aquatic ecosystems through the priming effect, and (2) priming effect intensity may be modified by global changes, interacting with eutrophication processes and atmospheric CO 2 increases. Finally, we argue that the priming effect acts substantially in the carbon and nutrient cycles in all ecosystems. We outline exciting avenues for research, which could provide new insights on the responses of ecosystems to anthropogenic perturbations and their feedbacks to climatic changes. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

Danger M.,CNRS Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Continental Environments | Chauvet E.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory | Chauvet E.,Ecolab
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2013

Ecological stoichiometry generally assumes that heterotrophs have a higher degree of elemental homeostasis than autotrophs. Differences between fixed consumer nutrient requirements and nutrients available in resources allow prediction of the intensity of nutrient recycling ensured by heterotrophs. Despite their fundamental role in detritus decomposition, extremely few data are currently available on fungal elemental composition. In this study, we quantified the degree of elemental homeostasis of aquatic hyphomycetes used as model organisms. Contrary to metazoans, but similar to plants, aquatic hyphomycetes exhibited highly plastic elemental compositions. Mycelium also reached far higher C/nutrient ratios than reported for bacteria. Our results suggest that non-homeostasis of fungi should be explicitly included in stoichiometric models dealing with nutrient recycling, and that the discrepancy in homeostasis between some bacterial strains and fungi should certainly be considered when investigating interactions between both groups of decomposers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.

Decamps H.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2011

For several years, measures to insure healthy river functions and to protect biodiversity have focused on management at the scale of drainage basins. Indeed, rivers bear witness to the health of their drainage basins, which justifies integrated basin management. However, this vision should not mask two other aspects of the protection of aquatic and riparian biodiversity as well as services provided by rivers. First, although largely depending on the ecological properties of the surrounding terrestrial environment, rivers are ecological systems by themselves, characterized by their linearity: they are organized in connected networks, complex and ever changing, open to the sea. Second, the structure and functions of river networks respond to manipulations of their hydrology, and are particularly vulnerable to climatic variations. Whatever the scale considered, river networks represent "hotlines" for sharing water between ecological and societal systems, as well as for preserving both systems in the face of global change. River hotlines are characterized by spatial as well as temporal legacies: every human impact to a river network may be transmitted far downstream from its point of origin, and may produce effects only after a more or less prolonged latency period. Here, I review some of the current issues of river ecology in light of the linear character of river networks. © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Laffaille P.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Ecology of Freshwater Fish | Year: 2011

We investigated the summer habitat occupied by populations of young-of-the-year wild and stocked (farmed populations released into the native range) Atlantic salmon under allopatric and sympatric conditions. Under allopatric conditions, farmed and wild salmon occupied habitats with the same characteristics. The salmon preferentially occupied the riffle areas. However, under sympatric conditions, the fish occupied meso- and micro-habitats with different characteristics. Wild salmon avoided habitats used by farmed salmon and preferred glide areas with considerable vegetation cover. This study suggests that differences in the pattern of habitats used by young Atlantic salmon were both size- and origin-dependent and may result from intra-species competition between farmed and wild populations. Given that stocking with farmed Atlantic salmon is carried out intensively to enhance recreational angling or to conserve salmon populations, this study warns that this can have a negative impact on the extant wild Atlantic salmon population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Laplanche C.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2010

The author compares 12 hierarchical models in the aim of estimating the abundance of fish in alpine streams by using removal sampling data collected at multiple locations. The most expanded model accounts for (i) variability of the abundance among locations, (ii) variability of the catchability among locations, and (iii) residual variability of the catchability among fish. Eleven model reductions are considered depending which variability is included in the model. The more restrictive model considers none of the aforementioned variabilities. Computations of the latter model can be achieved by using the algorithm presented by Carle and Strub (Biometrics 1978, 34, 621-630). Maximum a posteriori and interval estimates of the parameters as well as the Akaike and the Bayesian information criterions of model fit are computed by using samples simulated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The models are compared by using a trout (Salmo trutta fario) parr (0+) removal sampling data set collected at three locations in the Pyrénées mountain range (Haute-Garonne, France) in July 2006. Results suggest that, in this case study, variability of the catchability is not significant, either among fish or locations. Variability of the abundance among locations is significant. 95% interval estimates of the abundances at the three locations are [0.15, 0.24], [0.26, 0.36], and [0.45, 0.58] parrs per m2. Such differences are likely the consequence of habitat variability. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Taylor B.R.,St. Francis Xavier University | Chauvet E.E.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014

We compared autumn decomposition rates of European alder leaves at four sites along the Lasset-Hers River system, southern France, to test whether changes in litter decomposition rates from upstream (1,300 m elevation) to downstream (690 m) could be attributed to temperature-driven differences in microbial growth, shredder activity, or composition of the shredder community. Alder leaves lost 75-87% of original mass in 57 days, of which 46-67% could be attributed to microbial metabolism and 8-29% to shredder activity, with no trend along the river. Mass loss rates in both fine-mesh (excluding shredders) and coarse-mesh (including shredders) bags were faster at warm, downstream sites (mean daily temperature 7-8°C) than upstream (mean 1-2°C), but the difference disappeared when rates were expressed in heat units to remove the temperature effect. Mycelial biomass did not correlate with mass loss rates. Faster mass loss rates upstream, after temperature correction, evidently arise from more efficient shredding by Nemourid stoneflies than by the Leuctra-dominated assemblage downstream. The influence of water temperature on decomposition rate is therefore expressed both directly, through microbial metabolism, and indirectly, through the structure of shredder communities. These influences are evident even in cold water where temperature variation is small. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Leflaive J.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory | Ten-Hage L.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2011

Phototrophic biofilm formation and dynamics result from the interaction between several parameters, including chemical interactions. Some of the secondary metabolites released by microalgae can influence the composition of benthic communities. We determined the effects of decadienal (DD), a polyunsaturated aldehyde produced by diatoms, on a benthic diatom, Fistulifera saprophila. At 5 μg ml-1, DD reduced cell motility by 88% and cell adhesion to the substrate by 91%. The effects occurred in less than 30 min. Using a fluorescent probe, we showed that DD could induce nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in F. saprophila cells. Cells exposed to a NO donor presented reduced adhesion and motility, which suggests the involvement of this cellular messenger in the mode of action of DD. Short-term experiments in microcosms showed that the presence of DD on a substrate strongly inhibited biofilm formation. Moreover, when the biofilm was bispecific, DD modified the proportion of the two species present. This indicates that the presence of DD-producing diatoms in a biofilm may favor the presence of certain microalgae at the expense of others. In addition to the effects on adhesion and motility, DD induced the formation of aggregates of F. saprophila cells. Aggregation was independent of NO production. Complementary experiments were performed with two other benthic diatoms, Nitzschia palea and Mayamea atomus. They showed that the effects of DD on adhesion and aggregation were species-dependent. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Pinelli E.,Ecolab | Pinelli E.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Plants are the target of a wide range of pollutants that vary in concentration, speciation, and toxicity. Such pollutants mainly enter the plant system through the soil (Arshad et al. 2008) or via the atmosphere (Uzu et al. 2010). Among common pollutants that affect plants, lead is among the most toxic and frequently encountered (Cecchi et al. 2008; Grover et al. 2010; Shahid et al. 2011). Lead continues to be used widely in many industrial processes and occurs as a contaminant in all environmental compartments (soils, water, the atmosphere, and living organisms). The prominence of environmental lead contamination results both from its persistence (Islam et al. 2008; Andra et al. 2009; Punamiya et al. 2010) and from its present and past numerous sources. These sources have included smelting, combustion of leaded gasoline, or applications of lead-contaminated media (sewage sludge and fertilizers) to land (Piotrowska et al. 2009; Gupta et al. 2009; Sammut et al. 2010; Grover et al. 2010). In 2009, production of recoverable lead from mining operations was 1690, 516, and 400 thousand metric tons by China, Australia, and the USA, respectively (USGS 2009). © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Lambs L.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM | Year: 2011

Mangrove forest trees grow in severe conditions such as diurnal submersion and high salinity surface and subsurface waters. This study focuses on two species on Mayotte Island, i.e. Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata, living in the middle range of the coastal mangrove. The seedlings of these trees were planted in a tropical greenhouse with an original pump system built to reproduce the natural tidal effect. The water used by these saplings, in two contrasted salinity conditions, was measured by lysimetry. For adult species, the trees' water consumption was measured on the field side after being injected with heavy water (D(2)O). Our work shows that this isotopic technique also works in saline conditions, and a water consumption of around 1 ± 0.2 L per day and per centimeter of diameter was found. These values are discussed as follows: the techniques used, the distinctive features of the mangrove trees, and other factors affecting the water absorption. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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