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Decamps H.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2011

For several years, measures to insure healthy river functions and to protect biodiversity have focused on management at the scale of drainage basins. Indeed, rivers bear witness to the health of their drainage basins, which justifies integrated basin management. However, this vision should not mask two other aspects of the protection of aquatic and riparian biodiversity as well as services provided by rivers. First, although largely depending on the ecological properties of the surrounding terrestrial environment, rivers are ecological systems by themselves, characterized by their linearity: they are organized in connected networks, complex and ever changing, open to the sea. Second, the structure and functions of river networks respond to manipulations of their hydrology, and are particularly vulnerable to climatic variations. Whatever the scale considered, river networks represent "hotlines" for sharing water between ecological and societal systems, as well as for preserving both systems in the face of global change. River hotlines are characterized by spatial as well as temporal legacies: every human impact to a river network may be transmitted far downstream from its point of origin, and may produce effects only after a more or less prolonged latency period. Here, I review some of the current issues of river ecology in light of the linear character of river networks. © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Laffaille P.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Ecology of Freshwater Fish | Year: 2011

We investigated the summer habitat occupied by populations of young-of-the-year wild and stocked (farmed populations released into the native range) Atlantic salmon under allopatric and sympatric conditions. Under allopatric conditions, farmed and wild salmon occupied habitats with the same characteristics. The salmon preferentially occupied the riffle areas. However, under sympatric conditions, the fish occupied meso- and micro-habitats with different characteristics. Wild salmon avoided habitats used by farmed salmon and preferred glide areas with considerable vegetation cover. This study suggests that differences in the pattern of habitats used by young Atlantic salmon were both size- and origin-dependent and may result from intra-species competition between farmed and wild populations. Given that stocking with farmed Atlantic salmon is carried out intensively to enhance recreational angling or to conserve salmon populations, this study warns that this can have a negative impact on the extant wild Atlantic salmon population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Laplanche C.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2010

The author compares 12 hierarchical models in the aim of estimating the abundance of fish in alpine streams by using removal sampling data collected at multiple locations. The most expanded model accounts for (i) variability of the abundance among locations, (ii) variability of the catchability among locations, and (iii) residual variability of the catchability among fish. Eleven model reductions are considered depending which variability is included in the model. The more restrictive model considers none of the aforementioned variabilities. Computations of the latter model can be achieved by using the algorithm presented by Carle and Strub (Biometrics 1978, 34, 621-630). Maximum a posteriori and interval estimates of the parameters as well as the Akaike and the Bayesian information criterions of model fit are computed by using samples simulated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The models are compared by using a trout (Salmo trutta fario) parr (0+) removal sampling data set collected at three locations in the Pyrénées mountain range (Haute-Garonne, France) in July 2006. Results suggest that, in this case study, variability of the catchability is not significant, either among fish or locations. Variability of the abundance among locations is significant. 95% interval estimates of the abundances at the three locations are [0.15, 0.24], [0.26, 0.36], and [0.45, 0.58] parrs per m2. Such differences are likely the consequence of habitat variability. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Taylor B.R.,St. Francis Xavier University | Chauvet E.E.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014

We compared autumn decomposition rates of European alder leaves at four sites along the Lasset-Hers River system, southern France, to test whether changes in litter decomposition rates from upstream (1,300 m elevation) to downstream (690 m) could be attributed to temperature-driven differences in microbial growth, shredder activity, or composition of the shredder community. Alder leaves lost 75-87% of original mass in 57 days, of which 46-67% could be attributed to microbial metabolism and 8-29% to shredder activity, with no trend along the river. Mass loss rates in both fine-mesh (excluding shredders) and coarse-mesh (including shredders) bags were faster at warm, downstream sites (mean daily temperature 7-8°C) than upstream (mean 1-2°C), but the difference disappeared when rates were expressed in heat units to remove the temperature effect. Mycelial biomass did not correlate with mass loss rates. Faster mass loss rates upstream, after temperature correction, evidently arise from more efficient shredding by Nemourid stoneflies than by the Leuctra-dominated assemblage downstream. The influence of water temperature on decomposition rate is therefore expressed both directly, through microbial metabolism, and indirectly, through the structure of shredder communities. These influences are evident even in cold water where temperature variation is small. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Pinelli E.,Ecolab | Pinelli E.,CNRS Functional Ecology & Environment Laboratory
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Plants are the target of a wide range of pollutants that vary in concentration, speciation, and toxicity. Such pollutants mainly enter the plant system through the soil (Arshad et al. 2008) or via the atmosphere (Uzu et al. 2010). Among common pollutants that affect plants, lead is among the most toxic and frequently encountered (Cecchi et al. 2008; Grover et al. 2010; Shahid et al. 2011). Lead continues to be used widely in many industrial processes and occurs as a contaminant in all environmental compartments (soils, water, the atmosphere, and living organisms). The prominence of environmental lead contamination results both from its persistence (Islam et al. 2008; Andra et al. 2009; Punamiya et al. 2010) and from its present and past numerous sources. These sources have included smelting, combustion of leaded gasoline, or applications of lead-contaminated media (sewage sludge and fertilizers) to land (Piotrowska et al. 2009; Gupta et al. 2009; Sammut et al. 2010; Grover et al. 2010). In 2009, production of recoverable lead from mining operations was 1690, 516, and 400 thousand metric tons by China, Australia, and the USA, respectively (USGS 2009). © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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