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Le Clec'h W.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Braquart-Varnier C.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Raimond M.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Ferdy J.-B.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2012

Wolbachia are widespread endosymbionts found in a large variety of arthropods. While these bacteria are generally transmitted vertically and exhibit weak virulence in their native hosts, a growing number of studies suggests that horizontal transfers of Wolbachia to new host species also occur frequently in nature. In transfer situations, virulence variations can be predicted since hosts and symbionts are not adapted to each other. Here, we describe a situation where a Wolbachia strain (wVulC) becomes a pathogen when transfected from its native terrestrial isopod host species (Armadillidium vulgare) to another species (Porcellio d. dilatatus). Such transfer of wVulC kills all recipient animals within 75 days. Before death, animals suffer symptoms such as growth slowdown and nervous system disorders. Neither those symptoms nor mortalities were observed after injection of wVulC into its native host A. vulgare. Analyses of wVulC's densities in main organs including Central Nervous System (CNS) of both naturally infected A. vulgare and transfected P. d. dilatatus and A. vulgare individuals revealed a similar pattern of host colonization suggesting an overall similar resistance of both host species towards this bacterium. However, for only P. d. dilatatus, we observed drastic accumulations of autophagic vesicles and vacuoles in the nerve cells and adipocytes of the CNS from individuals infected by wVulC. The symptoms and mortalities could therefore be explained by this huge autophagic response against wVulC in P. d. dilatatus cells that is not triggered in A. vulgare. Our results show that Wolbachia (wVulC) can lead to a pathogenic interaction when transferred horizontally into species that are phylogenetically close to their native hosts. This change in virulence likely results from the autophagic response of the host, strongly altering its tolerance to the symbiont and turning it into a deadly pathogen. © 2012 Le Clec'h et al.


Gilbert C.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Chateigner A.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | Ernenwein L.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Barbe V.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 3 more authors.
Nature communications | Year: 2014

Horizontal transfer (HT) of DNA is an important factor shaping eukaryote evolution. Although several hundreds of eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of transposable elements (TEs) have been reported, the vectors underlying these transfers remain elusive. Here, we show that multiple copies of two TEs from the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) transposed in vivo into genomes of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) during caterpillar infection. We further demonstrate that both TEs underwent recent HT between several sympatric moth species (T. ni, Manduca sexta, Helicoverpa spp.) showing different degrees of susceptibility to AcMNPV. Based on two independent population genomics data sets (reaching a total coverage >330,000X), we report a frequency of one moth TE in ~8,500 AcMNPV genomes. Together, our results provide strong support for the role of viruses as vectors of TE HT between animals, and they call for a systematic evaluation of the frequency and impact of virus-mediated HT on the evolution of host genomes.


Feschotte C.,University of Texas at Arlington | Gilbert C.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012

Recent studies have uncovered myriad viral sequences that are integrated or 'endogenized' in the genomes of various eukaryotes. Surprisingly, it appears that not just retroviruses but almost all types of viruses can become endogenous. We review how these genomic 'fossils' offer fresh insights into the origin, evolutionary dynamics and structural evolution of viruses, which are giving rise to the burgeoning field of palaeovirology. We also examine the multitude of ways through which endogenous viruses have influenced, for better or worse, the biology of their hosts. We argue that the conflict between hosts and viruses has led to the invention and diversification of molecular arsenals, which, in turn, promote the cellular co-option of endogenous viruses. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Hunt J.H.,North Carolina State University | Richard F.-J.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
Insectes Sociaux | Year: 2013

Vibrations and sounds, collectively called vibroacoustics, play significant roles in intracolony communication in termites, social wasps, ants, and social bees. Modalities of vibroacoustic signal production include stridulation, gross body movements, wing movements, high-frequency muscle contractions without wing movements, and scraping mandibles or tapping body parts on resonant substrates. Vibroacoustic signals are perceived primarily via Johnston's organs in the antennae and subgenual organs in the legs. Substrate vibrations predominate as vibroacoustic modalities, with only honey bees having been shown to be able to hear airborne sound. Vibroacoustic messages include alarm, recruitment, colony activation, larval provisioning cues, and food resource assessment. This review describes the modalities and their behavioral contexts rather than electrophysiological aspects, therefore placing emphasis on the adaptive roles of vibroacoustic communication. Although much vibroacoustics research has been done, numerous opportunities exist for continuations and new directions in vibroacoustics research. © 2013 International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI).


Richard F.-J.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Hunt J.H.,North Carolina State University
Insectes Sociaux | Year: 2013

Chemical messengers are the primary mode of intracolony communication in the majority of social insect species. Chemically transmitted information plays a major role in nestmate recognition and kin recognition. Physical and behavioral castes often differ in chemical signature, and queen effects can be significant regulators of behavior and reproduction. Chemical messengers themselves differ in molecular structure, and the effects on behavior and other variables can differ as a consequence of not only molecular structure of the chemical messenger itself but also of its temporal expression, quantity, chemical blends with other compounds, and effects of the environment. The most studied, and probably the most widespread, intracolony chemical messengers are cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). CHCs are diverse and have been well studied in social insects with regard to both chemical structure and their role as pheromones. CHCs and other chemical messengers can be distributed among colony members via physical contact, grooming, trophallaxis, and contact with the nesting substrate. Widespread intracolony distribution of chemical messengers gives each colony a specific odor whereby colony members are integrated into the social life of the colony and non-members of the colony are excluded. Colony odor can vary as a function of genetic diversity within the colony, and the odor of a colony can change as a function of colony age and environmental effects. Chemical messengers can disseminate information on the presence of reproductives and fertility of the queen(s) and workers, and queen pheromone can play a significant role in suppressing reproduction by other colony members. New analytical tools and new avenues of investigation can continue to expand knowledge of how individual insects function as members of a society and how the society functions as a collective. © 2013 International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI).


Beauche F.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Beauche F.,University of Exeter | Richard F.-J.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. © 2013 Beauché, Richard.


Beltran-Bech S.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Richard F.-J.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2014

Sexual selection predicts that mate choice increases individual fitness. Infection by parasites (from eukaryotes to bacteria or viruses) can reduce this individual fitness, altering the infected individuals' sexual traits and molecular cues. In this case, one would expect to observe mechanisms for avoiding infection during mate choice. The vast majority of host responses to infection in terms of mate choice are intended to avoid infection, but the costs of mate choice can also hinder infection avoidance. This paper highlights the main limitations in current knowledge and empirical experiments, and summarizes the key factors that should be taken into account to test the hypothesis of infection avoidance in mate choice: the time of host-parasite coevolution in the biological interaction implied, the choosy sex tested (male, female or both) and the genetic background of the individuals tested. © 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.


Gilbert C.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Cordaux R.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryotic evolution, and mounting evidence suggests that it has also had an important impact on eukaryotic evolution. Although many prokaryote-to-prokaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of TEs have been characterized, only few cases have been reported between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we carried out a comprehensive search for all major groups of prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs) in 430 eukaryote genomes. We uncovered a total of 80 sequences, all deriving from the IS607 family, integrated in the genomes of 14 eukaryote species belonging to four distinct phyla (Amoebozoa, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Stramenopiles). Given that eukaryote IS607-like sequences are most closely related to cyanobacterial IS607 and that their phylogeny is incongruent with that of their hosts, we conclude that the presence of IS607-like sequences in eukaryotic genomes is the result of several HT events. Selection analyses further suggest that our ability to detect these prokaryote TEs today in eukaryotes is because HT of these sequences occurred recently and/or some IS607 elements were domesticated after HT, giving rise to new eukaryote genes. Supporting the recent age of some of these HTs, we uncovered intact full-length, potentially active IS607 copies in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani. Overall, our study shows that prokaryote-to-eukaryote HT of TEs occurred at relatively low frequency during recent eukaryote evolution and it sets IS607 as the most widespread TE (being present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses). © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


Leclercq S.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Cordaux R.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Transposable elements (TEs) are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model) or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model). Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics. © 2012 Leclercq, Cordaux.


Medici A.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
FEBS letters | Year: 2014

The profiling of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genes under water deficit was specifically targeted to sugar transporters. Leaf water status was characterized by physiological parameters and soluble sugars content. The expression analysis provided evidence that VvHT1 hexose transporter gene was strongly down-regulated by the increased sugar content under mild water-deficit. The genes of monosaccharide transporter VvHT5, sucrose carrier VvSUC11, vacuolar invertase VvGIN2 and grape ASR (ABA, stress, ripening) were up-regulated under severe water stress. Their regulation in a drought-ABA signalling network and possible roles in complex interdependence between sugar subcellular partitioning and cell influx/efflux under Grapevine acclimation to dehydration are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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