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Crampe N.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2015

We study the one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process in contact with two reservoirs including also a fugacity at one boundary. The eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the corresponding Markov matrix are computed using the modified algebraic Bethe ansatz, a method introduced recently to study the spin chain with non-diagonal boundaries. We provide in this case a proof of this method. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Biroli G.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Biroli G.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

A theoretical perspective is provided on the glass transition in molecular liquids at thermal equilibrium, on the spatially heterogeneous and aging dynamics of disordered materials, and on the rheology of soft glassy materials. We start with a broad introduction to the field and emphasize its connections with other subjects and its relevance. The important role played by computer simulations in studying and understanding the dynamics of systems close to the glass transition at the molecular level is given. The recent progress on the subject of the spatially heterogeneous dynamics that characterizes structural relaxation in materials with slow dynamics is reviewed. The main theoretical approaches are presented describing the glass transition in supercooled liquids, focusing on theories that have a microscopic, statistical mechanics basis. We describe both successes and failures and critically assess the current status of each of these approaches. The physics of aging dynamics in disordered materials and the rheology of soft glassy materials are then discussed, and recent theoretical progress is described. For each section, an extensive overview is given of the most recent advances, but we also describe in some detail the important open problems that will occupy a central place in this field in the coming years. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We analyze the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles in the large-density regime where passive particles undergo a kinetic arrest to an amorphous glassy state. We capture the competition between self-propulsion and crowding effects using a two-dimensional model of self-propelled hard disks, which we study using Monte Carlo simulations. Although the activity drives the system far from equilibrium, self-propelled particles undergo a kinetic arrest, which we characterize in detail and compare with its equilibrium counterpart. In particular, the critical density for dynamic arrest continuously shifts to larger densities with increasing activity, and the relaxation time is surprisingly well described by an algebraic divergence resulting from the emergence of highly collective dynamics. These results show that dense assemblies of active particles undergo a nonequilibrium glass transition that is profoundly affected by self-propulsion mechanisms. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Kob W.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Roldan-Vargas S.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Roldan-Vargas S.,University of Granada | Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Nature Physics | Year: 2012

The viscosity of glass-forming liquids increases by many orders of magnitude if their temperature is lowered by a mere factor of 2-3. Recent studies suggest that this widespread phenomenon is accompanied by spatially heterogeneous dynamics, and a growing dynamic correlation length quantifying the extent of correlated particle motion. Here we use a novel numerical method to detect and quantify spatial correlations that reveal a surprising non-monotonic temperature evolution of spatial dynamical correlations, accompanied by a second length scale that grows monotonically and has a very different nature. Our results directly unveil a dramatic qualitative change in atomic motions near the mode-coupling crossover temperature, which involves no fitting or indirect theoretical interpretation. These findings impose severe new constraints on the theoretical description of the glass transition, and open several research perspectives, in particular for experiments, to confirm and quantify our observations in real materials. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Kurchan J.,ESPCI ParisTech
Nature Physics | Year: 2013

The glass transition, extensively studied in dense fluids, polymers or colloids, corresponds to a marked evolution of equilibrium transport coefficients on a modest change of control parameter, such as temperature or pressure. A similar phenomenology is found in many systems evolving far from equilibrium, such as driven granular media, active and living matter. Although many theories compete to describe the glass transition at thermal equilibrium, very little is understood far from equilibrium. Here, we solve the dynamics of a specific, yet representative, class of glass models in the presence of non-thermal driving forces and energy dissipation, and show that a dynamic arrest can take place in these non-equilibrium conditions. Whereas the location of the transition depends on the specifics of the driving mechanisms, important features of the glassy dynamics are insensitive to details, suggesting that an effective thermal dynamics generically emerges at long timescales in non-equilibrium systems close to dynamic arrest. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Kob W.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We use computer simulations to investigate the static properties of a simple glass-forming fluid in which the positions of a finite fraction of the particles have been frozen. By probing the equilibrium statistics of the overlap between independent configurations of the liquid, we find strong evidence that this random pinning induces a glass transition. At low temperatures, our numerical findings are consistent with the existence of a random first-order phase transition rounded by finite size effects. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Kim P.,Princeton University | Abkarian M.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Stone H.A.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Mechanical instabilities that cause periodic wrinkling during compression of layered materials find applications in stretchable electronics and microfabrication, but can also limit an application™s performance owing to delamination or cracking under loading and surface inhomogeneities during swelling. In particular, because of curvature localization, finite deformations can cause wrinkles to evolve into folds. The wrinkle-to-fold transition has been documented in several systems, mostly under uniaxial stress. However, the nucleation, the spatial structure and the dynamics of the invasion of folds in two-dimensional stress configurations remain elusive. Here, using a two-layer polymeric system under biaxial compressive stress, we show that a repetitive wrinkle-to-fold transition generates a hierarchical network of folds during reorganization of the stress field. The folds delineate individual domains, and each domain subdivides into smaller ones over multiple generations. By modifying the boundary conditions and geometry, we demonstrate control over the final network morphology. The ideas introduced here should find application in the many situations where stress impacts two-dimensional pattern formation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Jourdain V.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory | Bichara C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Carbon | Year: 2013

Due to its higher degree of control and its scalability, catalytic chemical vapour deposition is now the prevailing synthesis method of carbon nanotubes. Catalytic chemical vapour deposition implies the catalytic conversion of a gaseous precursor into a solid material at the surface of reactive particles or of a continuous catalyst film acting as a template for the growing material. Significant progress has been made in the field of nanotube synthesis by this method although nanotube samples still generally suffer from a lack of structural control. This illustrates the fact that numerous aspects of the growth mechanism remain ill-understood. The first part of this review is dedicated to a summary of the general background useful for beginners in the field. This background relates to the carbon precursors, the catalyst nanoparticles, their interaction with carbonaceous compounds and their environment. The second part provides an updated review of the influence of the synthesis parameters on the features of nanotube samples: diameters, chirality, metal/semiconductor ratio, length, defect density and catalyst yield. The third part is devoted to important and still open questions, such as the mechanism of nanotube nucleation and the chiral selectivity, and to the hypotheses currently proposed to answer them. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alexandrov S.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Physics Reports | Year: 2013

We review a progress in obtaining the complete non-perturbative effective action of type II string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold. This problem is equivalent to understanding quantum corrections to the metric on the hypermultiplet moduli space. We show how all these corrections, which include D-brane and NS5-brane instantons, are incorporated in the framework of the twistor approach, which provides a powerful mathematical description of hyperkähler and quaternion-Kähler manifolds. We also present new insights on S-duality, quantum mirror symmetry, connections to integrable models and topological strings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Berthier L.,CNRS Charles Coulomb Laboratory
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013

We analyze numerically thermal fluctuations of the static overlap between equilibrium configurations in a glass-forming liquid approaching the glass transition. We find that the emergence of slow dynamics near the onset temperature correlates with the development of non-Gaussian probability distributions of overlap fluctuations, measured using both annealed and quenched definitions. Below a critical temperature, a thermodynamic field conjugate to the overlap induces a first-order phase transition, whose existence we numerically demonstrate in the annealed case. These results establish that the approach to the glass transition is accompanied by profound changes in the nature of thermodynamic fluctuations, deconstructing the view that glassy dynamics occurs with little structural evolution. © 2013 American Physical Society.

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