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The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context.


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. All current therapy regimens used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia include prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Initially it was thought that the best way of central nervous system prophylaxis is radiotherapy. But despite its effectiveness this method, may cause late sequelae and complications. In the programme currently used in Poland to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia, prophylactic radiotherapy has been reduced by 50% (12 Gy) and is used only in patients stratified into the high risk group and in patients diagnosed as T-cell ALL (T-ALL). Complementary to radiotherapy, intrathecal methotrexate is given alone or in combination with cytarabine and hydrocortisone is given, as well as systemic chemotherapy with intravenous methotrexate is administered in high or medium doses (depending on risk groups and leukemia immunophenotype). Recent studies have shown that high dose irradiation of the central nervous system impairs cognitive development causing memory loss, visuomotor coordination impairment, attention disorders and reduction in the intelligence quotient. It has been proved that the degree of cognitive impairment depends on the radiation dose directed to the medial temporal lobe structures, particularly in the hippocampus and the surrounding cortex. Also, methotrexate used intravenously in high doses, interferes with the metabolism of folic acid which is necessary for normal development and the optimal functioning of neurons in the central nervous system. It has been proved that patients who have been treated with high doses of methotrexate are characterized by reduced memory skills and a lower intelligence quotient. The literature data concerning long term neuroanatomical abnormalities and neuropsychological deficits are ambiguous, and there is still no data concerning current methods of central nervous system prophylaxis with low doses of irradiation in combination with high doses of intravenous methotrexate.


Rojek A.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Niedziela M.,Klinika Endokrynologii I Reumatologii Dzieciecej
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Insulin plays a very important role in maintaining homeostasis of the whole organism. It regulates glucose metabolism, glycogen synthesis, lipid and protein metabolism. Insulin receptors are present in virtually all cells, which is reflected by the diversity of regulatory processes in which this hormone is involved. Any dysfunction of insulin signalling pathway as a result of insulin receptor gene mutations is linked with various forms of insulin resistance, including insulin resistance type A, Donohue or Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, which differ in the level of severity. Molecular analysis of insulin receptor gene may lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying various types of insulin resistance and help to develop a more efficient treatment. They may also be used as a powerfull tool in prenatal diagnostics as well as in pregnancy planning.


Talarczyk M.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna | Year: 2014

The article describes a therapeutic work model with children and their parents, used in cases of children night fears. The submitted symptoms addressed children aged 7-12 and were based on difficulties in falling asleep without the physical proximity of a parent or waking up of the child at night identifying fear and the need to be close to their parent. The presented psychotherapy model was devised by the author based on years of clinical practice. The therapy was conducted in an ambulatory manner. Family psychotherapy was conducted in a systemic approach, while individual child therapy - in a behavioural-cognitive approach. Both family and individual therapy was lead by one therapist, which might seem controversial, following the assumption that different forms of therapy should be lead by different therapists. In the article the author states the reasons justifying one therapist conducting both child and family therapy, counting upon Larry Feldman's multilevel integrating therapy model. In his multilevel integrating model Feldman highlights that combining individual and family psychotherapy has great significance in child and adolescent problems, both in clinical diagnosis as well as in solving emotional, behavioural and interaction problems. Individual diagnostic conversations add vital information about the intrapsychic sphere, which enables formulating and verifying hypotheses in the individual therapeutic process. On the other hand, the consultational-diagnostic family sessions enable formulating hypotheses addressing family relations and their contribution to the development and/or sustenance of the problems. According to the author, while conducting therapeutic work with children and adolescents, it is especially noteworthy to consider both intrapsychic and interpersonal processes, as they are closely linked in the development phase, and are complimentary and synergetic. © PSYCHIATR. PSYCHOL.


Remlinger-Molenda A.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Wojciak P.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Michalak M.,Katedra i Zaklad Informatyki i Statystyki UM W Poznaniu | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2012

Aim. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of selected cytokines in bipolar patients during manic and depressive episodes and in remission. Method. The cytokine status was assessed in 76 bipolar patients, 35 with mania - and 41 with depression. For cytokine measurements blood samples were drawn from each patient twice - while in an acute episode and in remission. 78 healthy individuals were examined once. Serum samples were tested for concentrations of : IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ using the cytometric method. The patients' mental status was assessed with Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results. Concentration of IL-6 was higher during the manic state as compared to control group. Additionally, IL-6 level was higher in mania than in remission. Concentration of IL-10 was higher in patients in remission after manic episodes than in healthy controls. In manic patients raising of IFN-γ level was accompanied by more severe symptoms evaluated with YMRS. In remission after mania there was a correlation between IL-6 concentration and the intensity of the manic state. IFN-γ level was higher in depressed patients comparing to remission, as well as manic patients and subjects from control group. IFN-γ in remission after depression was still higher than in the healthy controls. Concentration of IL-1β was higher in depressed patients comparing to healthy subjects. Conclusion. The results obtained in this study show disturbances of the immune system in bipolar patients. These disturbances have features of either decrease or pathological increase of the immune response. Cytokines' profiles were different for mania and depression. Clinical improvement seems to be connected with immunomodulation process that results in changes of cytokine levels in bipolar patients in remission.

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