CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory

Montpellier, France

CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory

Montpellier, France
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Rojek A.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Niedziela M.,Klinika Endokrynologii I Reumatologii Dzieciecej
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Insulin plays a very important role in maintaining homeostasis of the whole organism. It regulates glucose metabolism, glycogen synthesis, lipid and protein metabolism. Insulin receptors are present in virtually all cells, which is reflected by the diversity of regulatory processes in which this hormone is involved. Any dysfunction of insulin signalling pathway as a result of insulin receptor gene mutations is linked with various forms of insulin resistance, including insulin resistance type A, Donohue or Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, which differ in the level of severity. Molecular analysis of insulin receptor gene may lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying various types of insulin resistance and help to develop a more efficient treatment. They may also be used as a powerfull tool in prenatal diagnostics as well as in pregnancy planning.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. All current therapy regimens used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia include prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Initially it was thought that the best way of central nervous system prophylaxis is radiotherapy. But despite its effectiveness this method, may cause late sequelae and complications. In the programme currently used in Poland to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia, prophylactic radiotherapy has been reduced by 50% (12 Gy) and is used only in patients stratified into the high risk group and in patients diagnosed as T-cell ALL (T-ALL). Complementary to radiotherapy, intrathecal methotrexate is given alone or in combination with cytarabine and hydrocortisone is given, as well as systemic chemotherapy with intravenous methotrexate is administered in high or medium doses (depending on risk groups and leukemia immunophenotype). Recent studies have shown that high dose irradiation of the central nervous system impairs cognitive development causing memory loss, visuomotor coordination impairment, attention disorders and reduction in the intelligence quotient. It has been proved that the degree of cognitive impairment depends on the radiation dose directed to the medial temporal lobe structures, particularly in the hippocampus and the surrounding cortex. Also, methotrexate used intravenously in high doses, interferes with the metabolism of folic acid which is necessary for normal development and the optimal functioning of neurons in the central nervous system. It has been proved that patients who have been treated with high doses of methotrexate are characterized by reduced memory skills and a lower intelligence quotient. The literature data concerning long term neuroanatomical abnormalities and neuropsychological deficits are ambiguous, and there is still no data concerning current methods of central nervous system prophylaxis with low doses of irradiation in combination with high doses of intravenous methotrexate.

Remlinger-Molenda A.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2010

Previous neuroimmunological studies focused mostly on depression, regardless of its diagnostic category. In this paper, the studies on the immunological system in patients with bipolar affective illness, including manic episode, have been presented. Research possibilities of neuroimmunology of affective disorders using molecular-genetic methods have also been shown. The studies on the neuroimmunology of depression have always been connected with studies on changes in the immunological system related to stress situations. Disturbances of the immunological system regulation have features of either decrease or pathological increase of the immunological system, with increased activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1 and 6, interferon). Some pathogenic role for the disturbances of immunological system in depression is also played by viral infections (herpes, Borna viruses). The changes of the immunological system in mania are mostly similar to those observed during depression. An increase of activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, connected with the lymphocyte Th1 system is especially evident. Like in depression, the role of viral infections has been pointed out (herpes, Borna, parvovirus B19). The oldest mood-stabilizing drug, lithium, has been shown to have strong action against herpes viruses. Molecular-genetic studies point to an association of some genes of the immunological system with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. An association of some genes with a predisposition to depression and efficacy of antidepressant drugs has also been shown.

Krawczyk K.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2012

Aim. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of augmenting administered antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from a severe episode of treatment-resistant recurrent depression or bipolar affective disorder with omega-3 fatty acids and comparing the obtained results with those achieved in the groups of patients potentiated with lithium or lamotrigine. Methods. The research subjects were 21 patients diagnosed with a severe episode of treatment-resistant recurring depression in the course of recurrent depression disorders - or bipolar affective disorders. Patient eligibility included failure to respond to at least two 4-week antidepressant treatments (venlafaxine at a dose of up to 300 mg/day or paroxetine at up to 60 mg/day). The regular antidepressant treatment regimen was augmented by the "eye-q"preparation with a course of 24 capsules per day (2.2 g of EPA, 700 mg of DHA, 240 mg of GLA, 40 mg of vitamin E, primrose oil). The patients received the preparation for at least 4 weeks. The comparison groups consisted of the patients suffering from the current episode of severe treatment-resistant depression, treated by potentiating antidepressant treatment with lithium and lamotrigine. Results. The initial intensity of depression symptoms on the HDRS scale was 30±6, following a 4-week potentiation HDRS score was 11±10. Taking into account a significantly higher initial intensity of depression, clinical improvement upon administering fatty acids was proportional to the one achieved by potentiating therapeutic effects with lithium and lamotrigine. Effectiveness resulting from the use of omega-3 fatty acids in a positive correlated with baseline severity of depression and in a manner adverse to the duration of the current episode. The use of high doses of omega-3 significantly decreased the levels of triglycerides, increased the HDL and LDL, did not result in adverse changes in liver enzyme values. Conclusions. Augmenting a standardised antidepressant treatment with omega-3 fatty acids resulted in a marked improvement in depression symptoms measured on the Hamilton scale in the majority of patients with treatment-resistant depression. Clinical improvement upon administering fatty acids was proportional to the one achieved by potentiating thera peutic effects with lithium and lamotrigine. The use of high doses of fatty acids did not cause significant side effects.

The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context.

Suwalska A.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Abramowicz M.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2012

Long-term mood instability and fluctuations in mood are quintessential features of bipolar disorder; however a great majority of of mood rating scales are cross-sectional and focused on acute symptoms. NIMH Life Chart Methodology (NIMH - LCM) and ChronoRecord program on the contrary record the severity, duration and frequency of mood swings. Many bipolar patients need combined treatment and take multiple medications, which is associated with better treatment outcome but also with the increased risk of side effects. Treatment with drug combination negatively impacts the compliance of the patients. Simultaneous assessment of daily mood fluctuations and monitoring of life events and medications may help to optimize treatment and to better detect nuances of partial response. an internet site, in which patients keep on-line diaries concerning their course of disease and treatment, makes this tool available to a large number of patients. Not only does it enable the patients to learn about mood disorders, but also it increases their involvement in their treatment.

Ferensztajn E.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2012

The concept of staging as a description of clinical advancement of illness is prevalent and commonly used in medicine. Regarding bipolar mood disorder (BD) a staging model assumes a progression from prodromal (at-risk) to more severe and treatment-refractory conditions. Four different staging models of BD have been proposed. The concept of Robert Post's is based on the phenomenon of kindling and neurosensitization, assuming a role of stressors in triggering the first episode of illness, with subsequent persistent changes in the activity of neurones, greater vulnerability to relapse and worse response to treatment. The concept of Anne Duffy's is based on the research of high risk bipolar offspring and describes the early development of the illness as successive stages, i.e. non-mood disorders, minor mood disorders and acute episodes of illness, starting in childhood, with an attempt to distinguish subtypes of the disease depending on the parent's response to prophylactic lithium treatment. The model of Michael Berk's has been constructed in parallel to the therapeutic algorithms and classifies the stages of illness based on clinical features, prognosis, and response to treatment. It also identifies high risk individuals, highlights need of early intervention and is proposed as a course specifier for BD. The model of Flavio Kapczinski's is based on a phenomenon of allostatic load and evaluation of the changes of biomarkers and cognitive functions during the episode and between episodes. A significant consequence of introducing the staging model is employing treatment which is adequate to a stage of the illness. The model underlines a necessity of early intervention and defines the first episode of the illness as a critical target of it, in a hope to a possibility of prevention against neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, clinical and functional consequence of the illness.

Remlinger-Molenda A.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Wojciak P.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Michalak M.,Katedra i Zaklad Informatyki i Statystyki UM W Poznaniu | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2012

Aim. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of selected cytokines in bipolar patients during manic and depressive episodes and in remission. Method. The cytokine status was assessed in 76 bipolar patients, 35 with mania - and 41 with depression. For cytokine measurements blood samples were drawn from each patient twice - while in an acute episode and in remission. 78 healthy individuals were examined once. Serum samples were tested for concentrations of : IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ using the cytometric method. The patients' mental status was assessed with Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results. Concentration of IL-6 was higher during the manic state as compared to control group. Additionally, IL-6 level was higher in mania than in remission. Concentration of IL-10 was higher in patients in remission after manic episodes than in healthy controls. In manic patients raising of IFN-γ level was accompanied by more severe symptoms evaluated with YMRS. In remission after mania there was a correlation between IL-6 concentration and the intensity of the manic state. IFN-γ level was higher in depressed patients comparing to remission, as well as manic patients and subjects from control group. IFN-γ in remission after depression was still higher than in the healthy controls. Concentration of IL-1β was higher in depressed patients comparing to healthy subjects. Conclusion. The results obtained in this study show disturbances of the immune system in bipolar patients. These disturbances have features of either decrease or pathological increase of the immune response. Cytokines' profiles were different for mania and depression. Clinical improvement seems to be connected with immunomodulation process that results in changes of cytokine levels in bipolar patients in remission.

Talarczyk M.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna | Year: 2014

The article describes a therapeutic work model with children and their parents, used in cases of children night fears. The submitted symptoms addressed children aged 7-12 and were based on difficulties in falling asleep without the physical proximity of a parent or waking up of the child at night identifying fear and the need to be close to their parent. The presented psychotherapy model was devised by the author based on years of clinical practice. The therapy was conducted in an ambulatory manner. Family psychotherapy was conducted in a systemic approach, while individual child therapy - in a behavioural-cognitive approach. Both family and individual therapy was lead by one therapist, which might seem controversial, following the assumption that different forms of therapy should be lead by different therapists. In the article the author states the reasons justifying one therapist conducting both child and family therapy, counting upon Larry Feldman's multilevel integrating therapy model. In his multilevel integrating model Feldman highlights that combining individual and family psychotherapy has great significance in child and adolescent problems, both in clinical diagnosis as well as in solving emotional, behavioural and interaction problems. Individual diagnostic conversations add vital information about the intrapsychic sphere, which enables formulating and verifying hypotheses in the individual therapeutic process. On the other hand, the consultational-diagnostic family sessions enable formulating hypotheses addressing family relations and their contribution to the development and/or sustenance of the problems. According to the author, while conducting therapeutic work with children and adolescents, it is especially noteworthy to consider both intrapsychic and interpersonal processes, as they are closely linked in the development phase, and are complimentary and synergetic. © PSYCHIATR. PSYCHOL.

Dembinska-Krajewska D.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory | Rybakowski J.,CNRS Botany and Computational Plant Architecture Laboratory
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2014

The aim of the paper is to describe the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) constructed by prominent researchers of affective disorders, under the direction of Hagop Akiskal, and functioning in full version since 2005. The article refers to the definitions of temperament, including the concept of affective temperament, related to the area of emotionality and conceptualized as the endophenotype of affective disorders. Based on clinical observations, initially four types of temperament had been delineated: hiperthymic, depressed, irritable and cyclothymic, and, subsequently, the anxious temperament was added. Full version of the scale contains 110 items for the five types of temperament, which were discussed in detail. The TEMPS-A has been translated into 32 languages and its verification was performed in many countries, including Poland. The scale has been widely used in epidemiological and clinical studies in general population, in patients with affective disorders, and in other diseases. In affective disorders, different types of temperament show, among others, a relationship to the type and symptomatology of bipolar disorder as well as to a predisposition to suicidal behavior. In Poznań centre, an association between several dimensions of temperament of the TEMPS-A, and prophylacic efficacy of lithium has been shown. Different types of temperament also play a role in other mental disorders and somatic diseases. In the final section of the article, the studies performed so far on the molecular-genetic determinants of temperament dimensions, measured by the TEMPS-A are presented.

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