CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory

Strasbourg, France

CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory

Strasbourg, France
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Mislin G.L.A.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Schalk I.J.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Metallomics | Year: 2014

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa strains is increasing, necessitating the urgent development of new strategies to improve the control of this pathogen. Its bacterial envelope constitutes of an outer and an inner membrane enclosing the periplasm. This structure plays a key role in the resistance of the pathogen, by decreasing the penetration and the biological impact of many antibiotics. However, this barrier may also be seen as the "Achilles heel" of the bacterium as some of its functions provide opportunities for breaching bacterial defenses. Siderophore-dependent iron uptake systems act as gates in the bacterial envelope and could be used in a "Trojan horse" strategy, in which the conjugation of an antibiotic to a siderophore could significantly increase the biological activity of the antibiotic, by enhancing its transport into the bacterium. In this review, we provide an overview of the various siderophore-antibiotic conjugates that have been developed for use against P. aeruginosa and show that an accurate knowledge of the structural and functional features of the proteins involved in this transmembrane transport is required for the design and synthesis of effective siderophore-antibiotic Trojan horse conjugates. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Luck K.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Charbonnier S.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Trave G.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
FEBS Letters | Year: 2012

The canonical binding mode of PDZ domains to target motifs involves a small interface, unlikely to fully account for PDZ-target interaction specificities. Here, we review recent work on sequence context, defined as the regions surrounding not only the PDZ domains but also their target motifs. We also address the theoretical problem of defining the core of PDZ domains and the practical issue of designing PDZ constructs. Sequence context is found to introduce structural diversity, to impact the stability and solubility of constructs, and to deeply influence binding affinity and specificity, thereby increasing the difficulty of predicting PDZ-motif interactions. We expect that sequence context will have similar importance for other protein interactions mediated by globular domains binding to short linear motifs. © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kalisch T.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Ame J.-C.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Dantzer F.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Schreiber V.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a protein post-translational modification that was originally connected to the DNA damage response, is now known to engage in a continuously increasing number of biological processes. Despite extensive research and ceaseless, important findings about its role and mode of action, poly(ADP-ribose) remains an enigma regarding its structural complexity and diversity. The recent identification and structural characterization of four different poly(ADP-ribose) binding motifs represents a quantum leap in the comprehension of how this molecule can be decoded. Moreover, the recent discovery of a direct connection between PARylation and poly-ubiquitylation in targeting proteins for degradation by the proteasome has paved the way for a new interpretation of this protein modification. These two novel aspects, poly(ADP-ribose) recognition and readout by the ubiquitylation/proteasome system are developed here. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Auclair G.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Weber M.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Biochimie | Year: 2012

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetically propagated DNA modification that can modify how the DNA molecule is recognized and expressed. DNA methylation undergoes extensive reprogramming during mammalian embryogenesis and is directly linked to the regulation of pluripotency and cellular identity. Studying its regulation is also important for a better understanding of the many diseases that show epigenetic deregulations, in particular, cancer. In the recent years, a lot of progress has been made to characterize the profiles of DNA methylation at the genome level, which revealed that patterns of DNA methylation are highly dynamic between cell types. Here, we discuss the importance of DNA methylation for genome regulation and the mechanisms that remodel the DNA methylome during mammalian development, in particular the involvement of the rediscovered modified base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Guibert S.,Montpellier University | Guibert S.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Forne T.,Montpellier University | Weber M.,Montpellier University | Weber M.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Genome Research | Year: 2012

Epigenetic reprogramming, characterized by loss of cytosine methylation and histone modifications, occurs during mammalian development in primordial germ cells (PGCs), yet the targets and kinetics of this process are poorly characterized. Here we provide a map of cytosine methylation on a large portion of the genome in developing male and female PGCs isolated from mouse embryos. We show that DNA methylation erasure is global and affects genes of various biological functions. We also reveal complex kinetics of demethylation that are initiated at most genes in early PGC precursors around embryonic day 8.0-9.0. In addition, besides intracisternal A-particles (IAPs), we identify rare LTRERV1 retroelements and single-copy sequences that resist global methylation erasure in PGCs as well as in preimplantation embryos. Our data provide important insights into the targets and dynamics of DNA methylation reprogramming in mammalian germ cells. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Schalk I.J.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Guillon L.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Pyoverdines are siderophores produced by fluorescent Pseudomonads to acquire iron. At least 60 different pyoverdines produced by diverse strains have been chemically characterized. They all consist of a dihydroquinoline-type chromophore linked to a peptide. These peptides are of various lengths and the sequences are strain specific. Pyoverdine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fluorescent Pseudomonads is a complex process involving at least 12 different proteins, starting in the cytoplasm and ending in the periplasm. The cellular localization of pyoverdine precursors was recently shown to be consistent with their biosynthetic enzymes. In the cytoplasm, pyoverdine appears to be assembled at the inner membrane and particularly at the old cell pole of the bacterium. Mature pyoverdine is uniformly distributed throughout the periplasm, like the periplasmic enzyme PvdQ. Secretion of pyoverdine involves a recently identified ATP-dependent efflux pump, PvdRT-OpmQ. This efflux system does not only secrete newly synthesized pyoverdine but also pyoverdine that already transported iron into the bacterial periplasm and any pyoverdine-metal complex other than ferri-pyoverdine present in the periplasm. This review considers how these new insights into pyoverdine biosynthesis and secretion contribute to our understanding of the role of pyoverdine in iron and metal homeostasis in fluorescent Pseudomonads. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Schalk I.J.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Guillon L.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Amino Acids | Year: 2013

Siderophore production and utilization is one of the major strategies deployed by bacteria to get access to iron, a key nutrient for bacterial growth. The biological function of siderophores is to solubilize iron in the bacterial environment and to shuttle it back to the cytoplasm of the microorganisms. This uptake process for Gram-negative species involves TonB-dependent transporters for translocation across the outer membranes. In Escherichia coli and many other Gram-negative bacteria, ABC transporters associated with periplasmic binding proteins import ferrisiderophores across cytoplasmic membranes. Recent data reveal that in some siderophore pathways, this step can also be carried out by proton-motive force-dependent permeases, for example the ferrichrome and ferripyochelin pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Iron is then released from the siderophores in the bacterial cytoplasm by different enzymatic mechanisms depending on the nature of the siderophore. Another strategy has been reported for the pyoverdine pathway in P. aeruginosa: iron is released from the siderophore in the periplasm and only siderophore-free iron is transported into the cytoplasm by an ABC transporter having two atypical periplasmic binding proteins. This review presents recent findings concerning both ferrisiderophore and siderophore-free iron transport across bacterial cytoplasmic membranes and considers current knowledge about the mechanisms involved in iron release from siderophores. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Ayachi S.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Simonin F.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Frontiers in Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Mammalian RF-amide peptides, which all share a conserved carboxyl-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 sequence, constitute a family of five groups of neuropeptides that are encoded by five different genes. They act through five G-protein-coupled receptors and each group of peptide binds to and activates mostly one receptor: RF-amide related peptide group binds to NPFFR1, neuropeptide FF group to NPFFR2, pyroglutamylated RF-amide peptide group to QRFPR, prolactin-releasing peptide group to prolactin-releasing peptide receptor, and kisspeptin group to Kiss1R. These peptides and their receptors have been involved in the modulation of several functions including reproduction, feeding, and cardiovascular regulation. Data from the literature now provide emerging evidence that all RF-amide peptides and their receptors are also involved in the modulation of nociception. This review will present the current knowledge on the involvement in rodents of the different mammalian RF-amide peptides and their receptors in the modulation of nociception in basal and chronic pain conditions as well as their modulatory effects on the analgesic effects of opiates. © 2014 Ayachi and Simonin.

Thuaud F.,CNRS Laboratory for Therapeutic Innovation | Ribeiro N.,CNRS Laboratory for Therapeutic Innovation | Nebigil C.G.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Desaubry L.,CNRS Laboratory for Therapeutic Innovation
Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2013

Prohibitins (PHBs) are scaffold proteins that modulate many signaling pathways controlling cell survival, metabolism, and inflammation. Several drugs that target PHBs have been identified and evaluated for various clinical applications. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that these PHB ligands may be useful in oncology, cardiology, and neurology, as well as against obesity. This review covers the physiological role of PHBs in health and diseases and current developments concerning PHB ligands. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Luck K.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory | Trave G.,CNRS Biotechnology and Cell Signaling Laboratory
Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Motivation: The phage display peptide selection approach is widely used for defining binding specificities of globular domains. PDZ domains recognize partner proteins via C-terminal motifs and are often used as a model for interaction predictions. Here, we investigated to which extent phage display data that were recently published for 54 human PDZ domains can be applied to the prediction of human PDZ-peptide interactions. Results: Promising predictions were obtained for one-third of the 54 PDZ domains. For the other two-thirds, we detected in the phage display peptides an important bias for hydrophobic amino acids that seemed to impair correct predictions. Therefore, phage displayselected peptides may be over-hydrophobic and of high affinity, while natural interaction motifs are rather hydrophilic and mostly combine low affinity with high specificity. We suggest that potential amino acid composition bias should systematically be investigated when applying phage display data to the prediction of specific natural domain-linear motif interactions. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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