CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit

Limoges, France

CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit

Limoges, France

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Amigues Y.,LABOGENA | Boitard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bertrand C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sancristobal M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rocha D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity of Blonde d'Aquitaine, a well-muscled native French beef breed, and to understand the relationships between Blonde d'Aquitaine, Limousin and Salers. We also compared these three beef breeds to the Holstein dairy breed. For this purpose, a set of 16 microsatellite markers were investigated. The obtained results show that Blonde d'Aquitaine has a high level of genetic diversity. Our study shows also that the French beef breeds have genetic differentiation among them, with approximately 9% of the total variation owing to breed differences. Our results show also that Blonde d'Aquitaine and Salers populations are genetically more similar to each other than to the Limousin. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Marty A.,Genopole | Amigues Y.,LABOGENA | Servin B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Renand G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Correlation between expression level of the bovine DNAJA1 gene and meat tenderness was recently found in Charolais longissimus thoracis muscle samples, suggesting that this gene could play an important role in meat tenderness. Here, we report the validation of polymorphisms within the bovine DNAJA1 gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium in the three main French beef breeds (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Limousin). Genotyping 18 putative SNPs revealed that 16 SNPs were polymorphic within the breeds tested. Two SNPs were removed from further analyses as one SNP had a low genotyping call rate, while the other SNP was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The degree of heterozygosity observed for the remaining 14 SNPs varied between breeds, with Charolais being the breed with the highest genetic variation and Blonde d'Aquitaine the lowest. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure of DNAJA1 were different between breeds. Eighteen different haplotypes, including three shared by all breeds, were discovered, and two to three tag SNPs (depending on the breed) are sufficient to capture all the genetic variability seen in these haplotypes. The results of this study will facilitate the design of optimal future association studies evaluating the role of the DNAJA1 gene in meat tenderness. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

PubMed | CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: | Journal: Cytokine & growth factor reviews | Year: 2016

The WFIKKN (WAP, Follistatin/kazal, Immunoglobulin, Kunitz and Netrin domain-containing) protein family is composed of two multidomain proteins: WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2. They were formed by domain shuffling and are likely present in deuterostoms. The WFIKKN (also called GASP) proteins are well known for their function in muscle and skeletal tissues, namely, inhibition of certain members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily such as myostatin (MSTN) and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11). However, the role of the WFIKKN proteins in other tissues is still poorly understood in spite of evidence suggesting possible action in the inner ear, brain and reproduction. Further, several recent studies based on next generation technologies revealed differential expression of WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 in various tissues suggesting that their function is not limited to MSTN and GDF11 inhibition in musculoskeletal tissue. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the WFIKKN proteins and propose that they are companion proteins for various growth factors by providing localized and sustained presentation of TGFB proteins to their respective receptors, thus regulating the balance between the activation of Smad and non-Smad pathways by TGFB.

Petit D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Mir A.-M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Petit J.-M.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Thisse C.,University of Virginia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Sialyltransferases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of sialoglycoconjugates that catalyze the transfer of sialic residue from its activated form to an oligosaccharidic acceptor. β-Galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferases ST6Gal I and ST6Gal II are the two unique members of the ST6Gal family described in higher vertebrates. The availability of genome sequences enabled the identification of more distantly related invertebrates' st6gal gene sequences and allowed us to propose a scenario of their evolution. Using a phylogenomic approach, we present further evidence of an accelerated evolution of the st6gal1 genes both in their genomic regulatory sequences and in their coding sequence in reptiles, birds, and mammals known as amniotes, whereas st6gal2 genes conserve an ancestral profile of expression throughout vertebrate evolution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Decker J.E.,University of Missouri | McKay S.D.,University of Vermont | Rolf M.M.,Oklahoma State University | Kim J.W.,University of Missouri | And 16 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. © 2014.

Petit D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Teppa E.,Fundacion Instituto Leloir | Mir A.-M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Vicogne D.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Sialyltransferases are responsible for the synthesis of a diverse range of sialoglycoconjugates predicted to be pivotal to deuterostomes' evolution. In this work, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the metazoan α2,3-sialyltransferases family (ST3Gal), a subset of sialyltransferases encompassing six subfamilies (ST3Gal I-ST3Gal VI) functionally characterized in mammals. Exploration of genomic and expressed sequence tag databases and search of conserved sialylmotifs led to the identification of a large data set of st3gal-related gene sequences. Molecular phylogeny and large scale sequence similarity network analysis identified four new vertebrate subfamilies called ST3Gal III-r, ST3Gal VII, ST3Gal VIII, and ST3Gal IX. To address the issue of the origin and evolutionary relationships of the st3gal-related genes, we performed comparative syntenic mapping of st3gal gene loci combined to ancestral genome reconstruction. The ten vertebrate ST3Gal subfamilies originated from genome duplication events at the base of vertebrates and are organized in three distinct and ancient groups of genes predating the early deuterostomes. Inferring st3gal gene family history identified also several lineage-specific gene losses, the significance of which was explored in a functional context. Toward this aim, spatiotemporal distribution of st3gal genes was analyzed in zebrafish and bovine tissues. In addition, molecular evolutionary analyses using specificity determining position and coevolved amino acid predictions led to the identification of amino acid residues with potential implication in functional divergence of vertebrate ST3Gal. We propose a detailed scenario of the evolutionary relationships of st3gal genes coupled to a conceptual framework of the evolution of ST3Gal functions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Moudouma C.F.M.,CNRS Chemistry of Natural Substances Laboratory | Gloaguen V.,CNRS Chemistry of Natural Substances Laboratory | Riou C.,CNRS Chemistry of Natural Substances Laboratory | Forestier L.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Saladin G.,CNRS Chemistry of Natural Substances Laboratory
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2012

In Arabidopsis thaliana, two genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC, AtPCS1 and AtPCS2, have been identified. Until now, only AtPCS1 was shown to play a role in response to Cd. To gain insight into the putative role of AtPCS2, three Cd concentrations (50, 100 and 200 μM) and long-term exposure (7 days) were tested on 1-week-old A. thaliana ecotype Wassilewskija (Ws) seedlings. Since 100 μM Cd did not alter seedling metabolism, as shown by unchanged total soluble protein and free proline contents, we investigated plantlet response to this concentration in addition to Cd accumulation. Seedlings accumulated Cd in roots and shoots. As phytochelatins and glutathione (GSH) contents increased in treated seedlings, we suggested that Cd might be translocated via the phytochelatin pathway. Specific enzymatic activities of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS; EC, glutathione synthetase (GS; EC and PCS were twice much more stimulated in shoots and roots after Cd exposure except GS that remained constant in shoots. As expression of genes encoding GCS and GS was unchanged in response to Cd, we suggested a regulation at translational or post-translational level. Surprisingly, AtPCS1 and AtPCS2 were differentially up-regulated after Cd treatment: AtPCS1 in shoots and AtPCS2 in whole plantlets. This last result suggests that PCS2 could be involved in plant response to high concentration of Cd in Ws ecotype and supports a putative role of PCS2, not redundant with PCS1, in a long-term response to Cd. © 2011 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

PubMed | CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit and CNRS Chemistry of Natural Substances Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology | Year: 2016

Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) is largely used in medical domain and could be envisaged as a farming practice against crop pathogens such as bacteria and fungi that generate drops in agricultural yields. Thus, as a prerequisite for this potential application, we studied the effect of water-soluble anionic (TPPS and Zn-TPPS) and cationic (TMPyP and Zn-TMPyP) porphyrins tested on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plantlets grown in vitro under a 16 h photoperiod. First of all, under dark conditions, none of the four porphyrins inhibited germination and induced cytotoxic effects on tomato plantlets as etiolated development was not altered. The consequences of porphyrin long-term photoactivation (14 days) were thus studied on in vitro-grown tomato plantlets at phenotypic and molecular levels. Cationic porphyrins especially Zn-TMPyP were the most efficient photosensitizers and dramatically altered growth without killing plantlets. Indeed, tomato plantlets were rescued after cationic porphyrins treatment. To gain insight, the different molecular ways implied in the plantlet tolerance to photoactivated Zn-TMPyP, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative molecules (total thiols, proline, ascorbate), and ROS detoxification enzymes were evaluated. In parallel to an increase in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide production, antioxidative molecules and enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were up-regulated in root apparatus in response to photoactivated Zn-TMPyP. This study showed that tomato plantlets could overcome the pressure triggered by photoactivated cationic porphyrin by activating antioxidative molecule and enzyme arsenal and confining Zn-TMPyP into cell wall and/or apoplasm, suggesting that APDT directed against tomato pathogens could be envisaged in the future.

Bardet S.M.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Ferran J.L.E.,University of Murcia | Sanchez-Arrones L.,University of Murcia | Puelles L.,University of Murcia
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2010

Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. © 2010 Bardet, Ferran, Sanchez-Arrones and Puelles.

Petit D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Teppa R.E.,University of Lille Nord de France | Petit J.-M.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Harduin-Lepers A.,University of Lille Nord de France
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

In higher vertebrates, sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acid residues, either Neu5Ac or Neu5Gc or KDN from an activated sugar donor, which is mainly CMP-Neu5Ac in human tissues, to the hydroxyl group of another saccharide acceptor. In the human genome, 20 unique genes have been described that encode enzymes with remarkable specificity with regards to their acceptor substrates and the glycosidic linkage formed. A systematic search of sialyltransferase-related sequences in genome and EST databases and the use of bioinformatic tools enabled us to investigate the evolutionary history of animal sialyltransferases and propose original models of divergent evolution of animal sialyltransferases. In this chapter, we extend our phylogenetic studies to the comparative analysis of the environment of sialyltransferase gene loci (synteny and paralogy studies), the variations of tissue expression of these genes and the analysis of amino-acid position evolution after gene duplications, in order to assess their sequence-function relationships and the molecular basis underlying their functional divergence. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

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