CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit

Limoges, France

CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit

Limoges, France
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Hocquette J.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hocquette J.-F.,VetAgro Sup | Bernard-Capel C.,Institute Of Lelevage | Vidal V.,Imaxio Inc. | And 5 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Background: Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40) was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) and beef quality.Results: We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1). RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group), was validated in the groups of 30 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 2, and in the 21 Charolais steers slaughtered in year 1, but not in the group of 19 steers slaughtered in year 2 which differ from the reference group by two factors (gender and year). When the first three groups of animals were analysed together, this subset of genes explained a 4-fold higher proportion of the variability in tenderness than muscle biochemical traits.Conclusion: This study underlined the relevance of the GENOTEND chip to identify markers of beef quality, mainly by confirming previous results and by detecting other genes of the heat shock family as potential markers of beef quality. However, it was not always possible to extrapolate the relevance of these markers to all animal groups which differ by several factors (such as gender or environmental conditions of production) from the initial population of reference in which these markers were identified. © 2012 Hocquette et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


El Hakam Kamareddin C.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Magnol L.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Blanquet V.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit
SpringerPlus | Year: 2015

Approximately 10 % of the population worldwide suffers from hearing loss (HL) and about 60 % of persons with early onset HL have hereditary hearing loss due to genetic mutations. Highly efficient mutagenesis in mice with the chemical mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU), associated with relevant phenotypic tools represents a powerful approach in producing mouse models for hearing impairment. A benefit of this strategy is to generate alleles to form a series revealing the full spectrum of gene function in vivo. It can also mimic the range of human mutations and polymorphisms for HL. In the course of a genome ENU mutagenesis program, we selected a new mouse model for hearing defect based on a dysmorphological screen. We identified by gene mapping the mutation responsible for this phenotype and characterized it at the histological level of the inner ear and evaluated the vestibule by following the recommendations of the standard operating procedures, IMPReSS. We have identified and characterized a new recessive allele of the otogelin gene, Otogvbd/vbd, due to a homozygous one base pair substitution at the splice donor site of intron 29. This mutation leads to a frame-shift and a premature stop codon. We observed a decrease in the amount of sensory cells in the maculae of Otogvbd/vbd mice as well as an apparent drastically decreased density to almost absence of the otoconial membrane. Compared to Otogtm1Prs and twister, the two other existing otogelin alleles, the detailed analysis of Otogvbd/vbd revealed that these mice share some common behavioural characteristics either with Otogtm1Prs or twister whereas the fine vestibular phenotype and the hearing defect are different. Our results emphasize the importance of detecting and characterizing a new allele of a gene in order to get comprehensive information about the gene function. © 2015, El Hakam Kamareddin et al.


Bardet S.M.,University of Liège | Mouriec K.,University of Liège | Balthazart J.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2012

Several brain areas in the diencephalon are involved in the activation and expression of sexual behavior, including in quail the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). However, the ontogeny of these diencephalic brain nuclei has not to this date been examined in detail. We investigated the ontogeny of POM and other steroid-sensitive brain regions by injecting quail eggs with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at various stages between embryonic day (E)3 and E16 and killing animals at postnatal (PN) days 3 or 56. In the POM, large numbers of BrdU-positive cells were observed in subjects injected from E3-E10, the numbers of these cells was intermediate in birds injected on E12, and most cells were postmitotic in both sexes on E14-E16. Injections on E3-E4 labeled large numbers of Hu-positive cells in POM. In contrast, injections performed at a later stage labeled cells that do not express aromatase nor neuronal markers such as Hu or NeuN in the POM and other steroid-sensitive nuclei and thus do not have a neuronal phenotype in these locations, contrary to what is observed in the telencephalon and cerebellum. No evidence could also be collected to demonstrate that these cells have a glial nature. Converging data, including the facts that these cells divide in the brain mantle and express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell cycling marker, indicate that cells labeled by BrdU during the second half of embryonic life are slow-cycling progenitors born and residing in the brain mantle. Future research should now identify their functional significance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Aubusson-Fleury A.,University Paris - Sud | Balavoine G.,University Paris Diderot | Lemullois M.,University Paris - Sud | Bouhouche K.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | And 2 more authors.
Biology Open | Year: 2017

First discovered in unicellular eukaryotes, centrins play crucial roles in basal body duplication and anchoring mechanisms. While the evolutionary status of the founding members of the family, Centrin2/Vfl2 and Centrin3/cdc31 has long been investigated, the evolutionary origin of other members of the family has received less attention. Using a phylogeny of ciliate centrins, we identify two other centrin families, the ciliary centrins and the centrins present in the contractile filaments (ICL centrins). In this paper, we carry on the functional analysis of still not well-known centrins, the ICL1e subfamily identified in Paramecium, and show their requirement for correct basal body anchoring through interactions with Centrin2 and Centrin3. Using Paramecium as well as a eukaryote-wide sampling of centrins from completely sequenced genomes, we revisited the evolutionary story of centrins. Their phylogeny shows that the centrins associated with the ciliate contractile filaments are widespread in eukaryotic lineages and could be as ancient as Centrin2 and Centrin3. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Marty A.,Genopole | Amigues Y.,LABOGENA | Servin B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Renand G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Correlation between expression level of the bovine DNAJA1 gene and meat tenderness was recently found in Charolais longissimus thoracis muscle samples, suggesting that this gene could play an important role in meat tenderness. Here, we report the validation of polymorphisms within the bovine DNAJA1 gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium in the three main French beef breeds (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Limousin). Genotyping 18 putative SNPs revealed that 16 SNPs were polymorphic within the breeds tested. Two SNPs were removed from further analyses as one SNP had a low genotyping call rate, while the other SNP was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The degree of heterozygosity observed for the remaining 14 SNPs varied between breeds, with Charolais being the breed with the highest genetic variation and Blonde d'Aquitaine the lowest. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure of DNAJA1 were different between breeds. Eighteen different haplotypes, including three shared by all breeds, were discovered, and two to three tag SNPs (depending on the breed) are sufficient to capture all the genetic variability seen in these haplotypes. The results of this study will facilitate the design of optimal future association studies evaluating the role of the DNAJA1 gene in meat tenderness. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Petit D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Mir A.-M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Petit J.-M.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Thisse C.,University of Virginia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Sialyltransferases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of sialoglycoconjugates that catalyze the transfer of sialic residue from its activated form to an oligosaccharidic acceptor. β-Galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferases ST6Gal I and ST6Gal II are the two unique members of the ST6Gal family described in higher vertebrates. The availability of genome sequences enabled the identification of more distantly related invertebrates' st6gal gene sequences and allowed us to propose a scenario of their evolution. Using a phylogenomic approach, we present further evidence of an accelerated evolution of the st6gal1 genes both in their genomic regulatory sequences and in their coding sequence in reptiles, birds, and mammals known as amniotes, whereas st6gal2 genes conserve an ancestral profile of expression throughout vertebrate evolution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Decker J.E.,University of Missouri | McKay S.D.,University of Vermont | Rolf M.M.,Oklahoma State University | Kim J.W.,University of Missouri | And 16 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. © 2014.


Petit D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Teppa E.,Fundacion Instituto Leloir | Mir A.-M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Vicogne D.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Sialyltransferases are responsible for the synthesis of a diverse range of sialoglycoconjugates predicted to be pivotal to deuterostomes' evolution. In this work, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the metazoan α2,3-sialyltransferases family (ST3Gal), a subset of sialyltransferases encompassing six subfamilies (ST3Gal I-ST3Gal VI) functionally characterized in mammals. Exploration of genomic and expressed sequence tag databases and search of conserved sialylmotifs led to the identification of a large data set of st3gal-related gene sequences. Molecular phylogeny and large scale sequence similarity network analysis identified four new vertebrate subfamilies called ST3Gal III-r, ST3Gal VII, ST3Gal VIII, and ST3Gal IX. To address the issue of the origin and evolutionary relationships of the st3gal-related genes, we performed comparative syntenic mapping of st3gal gene loci combined to ancestral genome reconstruction. The ten vertebrate ST3Gal subfamilies originated from genome duplication events at the base of vertebrates and are organized in three distinct and ancient groups of genes predating the early deuterostomes. Inferring st3gal gene family history identified also several lineage-specific gene losses, the significance of which was explored in a functional context. Toward this aim, spatiotemporal distribution of st3gal genes was analyzed in zebrafish and bovine tissues. In addition, molecular evolutionary analyses using specificity determining position and coevolved amino acid predictions led to the identification of amino acid residues with potential implication in functional divergence of vertebrate ST3Gal. We propose a detailed scenario of the evolutionary relationships of st3gal genes coupled to a conceptual framework of the evolution of ST3Gal functions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


Bardet S.M.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Ferran J.L.E.,University of Murcia | Sanchez-Arrones L.,University of Murcia | Puelles L.,University of Murcia
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2010

Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. © 2010 Bardet, Ferran, Sanchez-Arrones and Puelles.


Petit D.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Teppa R.E.,University of Lille Nord de France | Petit J.-M.,CNRS Animal Molecular Genetics Unit | Harduin-Lepers A.,University of Lille Nord de France
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

In higher vertebrates, sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acid residues, either Neu5Ac or Neu5Gc or KDN from an activated sugar donor, which is mainly CMP-Neu5Ac in human tissues, to the hydroxyl group of another saccharide acceptor. In the human genome, 20 unique genes have been described that encode enzymes with remarkable specificity with regards to their acceptor substrates and the glycosidic linkage formed. A systematic search of sialyltransferase-related sequences in genome and EST databases and the use of bioinformatic tools enabled us to investigate the evolutionary history of animal sialyltransferases and propose original models of divergent evolution of animal sialyltransferases. In this chapter, we extend our phylogenetic studies to the comparative analysis of the environment of sialyltransferase gene loci (synteny and paralogy studies), the variations of tissue expression of these genes and the analysis of amino-acid position evolution after gene duplications, in order to assess their sequence-function relationships and the molecular basis underlying their functional divergence. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

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